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### 25 Cards in this Set

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 energy the ability to do work or produce heat 2 basic forms: - PE (potential energy - KE potential energy energy due to the composition or position of an object potential energy of a substance depends upon: - its composition - the type of atoms in the substance - the number and type of chemical bonds joining the atoms - the way the atoms are arranged law of conservation of energy in any chemical reaction or physical process, energy can be converted from one form to another, but it is neither created nor destroyed chemical potential energy the energy stored in a substance b/c of its composition heat (q) the energy that is in the process of flowing from a warmer object to a cooler object measured through the flow of energy and the resulting change in temp calorie (cal) a measurement of heat (metric) Def: the amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 g of pure water by 1 degree Celsius 1 (nutritional) Calorie = 1,000 cal or 1 kcal joule (J) the SI unit of heat and energy 1 cal = 4.184 J specific heat (of any substance) the amount of heat required to raise the temp of that substance by 1 degree Celsius Unit: J/(g degrees C) each substance has its own specific heat b/c different substances have different compositions q (heat absorbed or released) = q = c X m X change in temp c = specific heat of substance m = mass of substance (g) change in temp = Tfinal - Tinitial (degrees C) calorimeter an insulated device used for measuring the amount of heat absorbed or released during a chemical or physical process - reactions occur at a constant pressure thermochemistry the sutdy of heat changes that accompany chemical reaction and phase changes system the specific part of the universe that contains the reaction or process you wish to study surroundings everything in the universe other than the system universe the system + the surroundings enthalpy (H) the heat content of a system at constant pressure - you can't measure the actual energy or enthalpy of a substance, but you can measure the change in enthalpy enthalpy (heat) of reaction the change in enthalpy for a reaction-- the heat absorbed or released in a chemical reaction = Hproducts - Hreactants AND = Hfinal - Hinitial endothermic process in which the system ABSORBS thermal energy from the surroundings products have more energy than reactants change Hrxn is positive energy added is in the REACTANTS exothermic process in which the system RELEASES thermal energy to the surroundings products have less energy than the reactants change Hrxn is negative energy added is in the PRODUCTS endergonic process in which the system ABSORBS energy (not neccessarily thermal) from the surroundings energy added is in the REACTANTS exergonic process in which the system RELEASES energy (not necessarily thermal) to the surroundings energy added is in the PRODUCTS thermochemical equation a balanced chemical equation that includes the physical states of all reactants and products and the energy change, usually expressed as the change H nature of reaction can be written as subscript of change H enthalpy (heat) of combustion the enthalpy change for the complete burning of one mole of the substance standard conditions 1 atm pressure 298 K (25 degrees C) indicated by the 0 superscript on changes in enthalpy molar enthalpy (heat) of vaporization the heat require the vaporize 1 mole of a liquid endothermic-- positive for water: = 40.7 kJ/mol values for condensation are the same but with opp sign molar enthalpy (heat) of fusion the heat required to melt one mole of a solid substance endothermic--positive for water: 6.01 kJ/mole values for solidification are the same but with opp sign