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92 Cards in this Set

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Rome, Sta. Costanza ca. A.D. 350 (fig. 4-10)
mausoleum (singular), mausolea (plural)
composite column
ambulatory
central-plan church
q
Ravenna, Mausoleum of Galla Placida, A.D. 425 (colorplate 19)
mausoleum (singular), mausolea (plural)
blind arch
pendentive
dome
Q
Ravenna, Church of S. Apollinare Nuovo, A.D. 490 (colorplate 18)
Q
Ravenna, Church of S. Vitale, ca. 526-547
Q
Constantinople, Church of Haghia Sophia, 532-537, colorplate 21, Figs. 4-28 – 4-31
Justinian (emperor 527-565) and Theodora
Isidorus of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles
central-plan church
pendentive
half-dome
Q
Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 691-692 (fig. 6-4)
Q
Great Mosque, Córdoba, Spain, 786 – 10 century (fig. 6-1, 6-7)
mosque
mihrab (niche indicating the direction of Mecca)
quibla (wall in which the mihrab is located, also direction of Mecca)
minaret (tower)
sahn (arcaded courtyard)
haram (covered prayer hall)
columnar hall mosque
lobed arches
stacked arches
petaled dome
Q
Mosque of Sultan Suleyman, Constantinople (Istanbul), 1550
central dome mosque
madrasa
caravanserai
Sinan (1490-1588)
Sultan Süleyman
Q
Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), Palatine Chapel, 796-805 (figs. 5-1, 2, 3, 4)
Charlemagne (Charles the Great, Carolus Magnus)
Holy Roman Empire
westwork
gallery
Q
Essen, Germany, Munster Cathedral, late 10th century (figs. 5-13, 14)
Q
St.-Sernin, Toulouse, France, 1080-1120 (figs. 5-29, 30, 31)
pilgrimage
relic/reliquary
radiating chapel
Q
Cathedral of St.-Lazare, Autun, France, ca. 1120-1130, (fig. 5-35)
Romanesque church portal
trumeau
jamb / jamb columns
lintel
voussoir
archivolt
tympanum
spandrel
Q
Milan, Italy, S. Ambrogio, 1080-1140 (figs, 5-43, 44)
rib vaults
Q
Pisa, Italy, Cathedral (begun 1063), (figs. 5-49-51)
marble arcade
polychrome marble revetment
Q
Caen, France. St. Étienne, 1068-1088 (figs. 5-54-55)
rib vaults
clustered wall shafts
Q
Durham, England. Cathedral, late 11th - 12th centuries (figs. 5-57. 58)
flying buttress
Q
Notre Dame, Laon c. 1160 (fig. 7-19),
arcade
gallery
triforium
clerestory
clustered wall shafts
pointed arch
Q
Notre Dame, Paris, begun 1163 (figs. 7-20, 21)
triple portal
rose window
lancet
Q
What are the features of a central-plan church and how do they develop from Roman mausolea?
square central mass and four arms of equal length. The most distinctive feature was the domed roof
mausoleum (singular), mausolea (plural)
external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons.
composite column
The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order with the leaves of the Corinthian order. The composite volutes are larger, however, and the composite order also has echinus with egg-and-dart ornamentation between the volutes. The column of the composite order is ten diameters high.

Until the Renaissance, the composite was not ranked as a separate order. Instead it was considered as a late Roman form of the Corinthian order. The Arch of Titus, in the forum in Rome was built in 82 and is considered the first example of a Composite order.
ambulatory
Aisles that line the nave extend through the transept and continue in a half-circle that runs behind the apse.
central-plan church
square central mass and four arms of equal length. The most distinctive feature was the domed roof
blind arch
Arch built into a wall
pendentive
A triangular section of vaulting between the rim of a dome and each adjacent pair of the arches that support it.
dome
a dome
How does the central-plan church compare to the basilica-plan church?
basillica is rectangular, central-plan is circular.
Why is Hagia Sophia considered to be an exemplary Byzantine church and one of the
most spectacular buildings in the world?
In this one structural organism the Roman methods of construction are epitomized, modified and enriched by new aesthetic theories and realized in strikingly colorful materials and ornamental techniques.
Justinian (emperor 527-565) and Theodora
Hagia Sophia was designed under these guys.
Isidorus of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles
Designed the Hagia Sophia
half-dome
half of a dome
What are the principal architectural features of a mosque?
The wall facing Mecca is called the qibla wall and is marked by a mihrab, which usually takes the form of a decorated niche. In later ages mihrabs became quite elaborate; they are decorated with wooden fretwork in Morocco, with carved and pierced marble in Syria and Iraq, and with lusterware tiles bearing quotations from the Qur'an in Iran.

A mosque usually includes a number of distinctive elements: a mimbar (or minbar), a pulpit that is entered by a flight of steps and stands next to the mihrab; a maqsura, an enclosed space around the mihrab, generally set apart by trellis screens, in which the caliph, sultan, or governor prays; a minaret, a tower, usually built at one or more corners of the mosque, from which the call to prayer is sounded; a sahn, a courtyard, surrounded by riwaqs, colonnaded or arcaded porticoes with wells or fountains for the necessary ablutions before prayer; and space for a madrasa, a school that often includes libraries and living quarters for teachers and pupils.
What are the religious practices that influence mosque design and how can we see their impact?
Call to prayer - Minaret
Place for many to pray - hall of prayer and whatnot
mihrab
niche indicating the direction of Mecca
quibla
wall in which the mihrab is located, also direction of Mecca)
minaret
tower
sahn
arcaded courtyard
haram
covered prayer hall
columnar hall mosque
mosque with a hall of columns
lobed arches
arches with semicircle recesses
stacked arches
arches stacked on top of one another
petaled dome
An eight sided crazy dome (it's mentioned one time in the book and the explanation is crap)
How does the design of a domed pray hall mosque compare to a columnar hall or iwan plan?
Domed prayer hall has a big dome over it and many times several small domes in other parts

columnar hall has a flat roof with columns to hold it up

Iwan mosques are most notable for their domed chambers and iwans, which are vaulted spaces open out on one end. In iwan mosques, one or more iwans face a central courtyard that serves as the prayer hall. The style represents a borrowing from pre-Islamic Iranian architecture and has been used almost exclusively for mosques in Iran.
How did the architecture of the Byzantine central plan church influence the designs of Sinan?
Hagia Sophia was his main influence with the great domes and what not
What do we mean by the “Middle Ages” in the history of Europe and what happens to the traditions of the Greco-Roman world during this period?
Period in European history traditionally dated from the fall of the Roman Empire to the dawn of the Renaissance. In the 5th century the Western Roman Empire endured declines in population, economic vitality, and the size and prominence of cities. It also was greatly affected by a dramatic migration of peoples that began in the 3rd century. In the 5th century these peoples, often called barbarians, carved new kingdoms out of the decrepit Western Empire.
central dome mosque
mosque with a dome in the center
madrasa
Islamic school for teaching Islamic religion and law
caravanserai
An inn where caravans rest at night; usually a large bare building surrounded by a court
Sinan
Famous Muslim Architect influeced by Hagia Sophia
Sultan Suleyman
Conqueror (the lawgiver)
Charlemagne
Charlemagne was the Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800
Holy roman empire
loosely federated European political entity that began with the papal coronation of the German king Otto I as the first emperor in 962 and lasted until Francis II's renunciation of the title at the instigation of Napoleon in 1806. The empire was troubled by papal-secular squabbles over authority and after the 13th century by the rising ambitions of nationalistic states. By 1273 the empire consisted primarily of the Hapsburg domains in Austria and Spain.
westwork
A westwork (also westwerk) is the monumental, west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, or Romanesque church. The exterior consists of multiple stories between two towers. The interior includes an entrance vestibule, a chapel, and a series of galleries overlooking the nave. This was used to show imperial rule.
gallery
upper story aisle attached to the inside wall of a building or over the ambulatory
What are the most important features in the plan and elevation of early Romanesque churches?
Romanesque churches characteristically incorporated semicircular arches for windows, doors, and arcades; barrel or groin vaults to support the roof of the nave; massive piers and walls, with few windows, to contain the outward thrust of the vaults; side aisles with galleries above them; a large tower over the crossing of nave and transept; and smaller towers at the church's western end.
How do Romanesque architects solve the problem of designing the ceiling above the nave?
Barrel or Groin Vaults
How does the design of Romanesque pilgrimage churches reflect their function?
Larger churches to accomodate more people
transept
The transverse part of a cruciform church, crossing the nave at right angles.
crossing
the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church.
choir
he area of the church between a transept and main apse. It is the area where the service is sung and clergy may stand, and the main or high altar is located. In some churches there is no choir, while in others, the choir is quite large and surrounded by an ambulatory.
amublatory
A semicircular or polygonal aisle. Often an ambulatory leads around the east end of the choir; separating the choir from apses or chapels.
radiating chapel
One of a series of chapels which project symmetrically from
an apse or ambulatory at the east end of a church
crypt
An underground vault or chamber, especially one beneath a church that is used as a burial place.
banded barrel vault
some sort of strange barrel vault with bands?
diaphragm arch
A diaphragm arch is a transverse, wall-bearing arch that divides a vault or a ceiling into compartments, providing a kind of firebreak.
pilgrimage
Pilgrimages were first made to sites connected with the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus
relic/reliquary
A receptacle, such as a coffer or shrine, for keeping or displaying sacred relics.
Romanesque church portal
The great carved portals of 12th century church facades (see Church of St. Trophime) parallel the architectural novelty of the period—monumental stone sculpture seems to have been reborn in the Romanesque.
trumeau
A central pillar supporting the tympanum of a large doorway especially in a medieval building.
jamb / jamb columns
One of a pair of vertical posts or pieces that together form the sides of a door, window frame, or fireplace, for example.
lintel
) A horizontal member over an opening, such as a door or window, usually carrying the wall load.
voussoir
One of the wedge-shaped stones forming the curved parts of an arch or vaulted ceiling.
archivolt
A decorative molding carried around an arched wall opening.
tympanum
1. The ornamental recessed space or panel enclosed by the cornices of a triangular pediment.
2. A similar space between an arch and the lintel of a portal or window.
spandrel
triangular space
rib vault
any vault reinforced by masonry ribs
How do the churches at Caen in France and Durham in England anticipate Gothic cathedrals?
Cool shiat all over the place...
flying buttress
An arched masonry support serving to bear thrust, as from a roof or vault, away from a main structure to an outer pier or buttress. Also called arc-boutant.
polychrome marble revetment
A facing, as of masonry, used to support an embankment made of colored marble
lancet
an acutely pointed Gothic arch, like a lance
rose window
A large circular window, usually glazed with stained glass, having stone tracery radiating from the center, often with intricate petallike patterns.
triple portal
three entrances
pointed arch
Arch with a point
clustered wall shafts
cluster of shafts by wall
clerestory
raised roof with windows to let in light
triforium
A gallery of arches above the side-aisle vaulting in the nave of a church.
gallery
upper level attached to inside of building wall or over ambulatory
arcade
passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns, or else it is a covered passage fronted by a series of arches.
rib vaults
any vault reinforced by masonry ribs.
marble arcade
passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns, or else it is a covered passage fronted by a series of arches. made of marble
Romanesque time period
11th and 12th centuries
Santiago de Compostela Relic
relics are those of Saint James the Great