Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the endocrine necessary for?
1.reproduction, growth, and development management
3.preservation and stabilization of the internal environment
What is this the definition of: Info carrying molecule secreted in small amounts by a specific gland and transported in the blood to a distant site to exert a biological effect.
What are non-classic hormones?
Non-classic hormones are those produced in non-endocrine organs ie. ANP by heart, rennin, erythropoietin and active vit D by kidney
Non-classic hormones that act locally, invovle no transport-->involve what mechanism?
Non-classic hormones that act on the cells that produce them-->involve what mechanism?
What are the 3 parts to the simple endocrine system?
1.Endocrine gland and the hormone it produces
2.Transport System
3.Effector organ that undergoes biologic changes
Describe the process of peptide biosynthesis, storage, and release?
1.mRNA transcribed in nucleus on DNA cytoplasm, translated to specific amino acid sequence
3.peptide bond formed and transported through RER
4.cleaved from prohormone to mature and packaged into vesicles in the Golig apparatus
5.segregated to protect and concentrate hormone
6.Hormone release: use ATP, Ca++ mobilized, contractions
Where do the secreting cells of steroids all originate from?
Primitive urogenital ridge.
What precursor molecule are steriods produced from?
How are steroids kept in the cell in which they are made?
They are kept in esterified form.
How are steroids released from the cell in which they are made?
Lipid soluble, released via simple diffusion.
Are steroids packaged or stored?
What determines the ring modification to determine the final steroid?
Enzyme profile
Amino Acid precursors are secreted from what 2 glands?
Adrenals and thyroid
For the thyroid gland, where does it receive its tyrosine precursor from?
Are amino acid derivatives packed and stored?
How are amino acid derivatives released?
Via exocytosis
During biosynthesis what are tyrosin molecules incorporated into?
What makes up a thyroid colloid?
Thyroglobulin + hormones
Where is colloid stored?
Colloid stored in lumen of thyroid follicle
How are thyroid hormones released from the cell?
-Follicular cells take up colloid
-Merge with lysosomes
-Proteolysis frees thyroid hormones and they diffuse across cell membrane
What determines the magnitude of change in the effector?
Rate of secretion into blood and rate of removal from blood determine concentration of blood
What types of molecules circulate free and unbound?
Amine and polypeptides
What molecules circulate with a carrier protein?
Steroid and thyroid hormones
Which form of the circulating molecules is the only form that is active?
Only free unbound is active
What makes up a circulating reservoir?
Transport-protein/hormone complex
What causes changes in binding proteins serum levels?
Pathologic and physiologic means.
Change in binding proteins serum levels are reflected in what?
Bound + Free (total) buy NOT free conc ????
The rate of removal from blood of a molecule is directly realted to what?
Binding, tightly bound=longer plasma life
What are 2 molecules that are considered to be hydrophilic hormones?
Peptides, catecholamines
What are 2 lipophilic hormones?
Steroids and thyroid hormones
Describe how hydrophilic hormones work?
-stage1: hormone-receptor interaction generates a signal
-stage2: signal transduction: g-proteins regulate generation of 2nd messengers
-stage3:second messengers mediate the biologic response to the hormone cAMP, cGMP, Ca++, diacylglcyerol, inositol triphosphate
-Stage4: biological response-->2nd messengers interact with cell-->change in activity of an EXISTING enzyme determines the response.
Describe how lipophilic hormones work?
1.enter targe cell and bind receptor
2.hormone-receptor complex regulates transcription, mRNA and protein synthesis
3.Response is mediated by change in amount of NEW enzyme-->i.e. increase synthesis of enzyme or functionally related group of enzymes
What system does the following describe?
1.Means of transport, controls secretion and rate of delivery and effect on target
2.Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, anti-diuretic hormone and ANP regulate whole body fluid and electrolyte metabolism, ECF, blood volume
3.Adrenergics influence contractility, rhythm and systemic vascular resistance
Cardiovascular system
What body system does the endocrine depend on?
Cardiovascular system
What body system does this describe: External stimuli alters endocrine activity by neural paths?
Nervous system
What body system does the following describe?
1.Auditory stimuli alters the HTP axis and effects Cortisol secretion
2.Light stimuli affects rhythm
3.Internal environment has a role (ie blood composition)
4.Endocrine system influences neurons too
5.Beta cell innervation modulates insulin secretion
Nervous system
What molecule alter CNS activity?
The following are examples of what?
1.Vasopressin decrease body temp and improves memory
2.ANP and angiotensin (thirst regulators) are produced in the CNS
Peptides that alter CNS activity
What does vasopressin do?
Alters body temp, improves memory
What do ANP and angiotensin do?
They are thirst regulators, and are produced in the CNS
What molecules influence the hypothalamic activity, libido, anxiety and depression?
What influences the development and function of the CNS?
Thyroid amines
What 2 structures are vascularly linked?
CNS and anterior pituitary.
What is the goal of the endocrine system?
What substances regulate hormone secretion?
Neural transmitters, substrates, ions and other hormones in the blood and ECF.
The follwing describes what type of feedback system?
1.Hormone produces target response
2.Response acts on cell that produced hormone to decrease secretion
3.Adenohypophysis inhibits ACTH
Negative feedback
The following describes what type of feedback system?
1.2 hormones change in the same direction
2.Initial increae in activity leads to further increase in activity
3.Amplifies effect
4.i.e.reproductive function
Positive feedback
Hormones secreted in repetitious episodic patterns are referred to as what?
Temporal patterns
What is the rate of secretion of a hormone equal to?
Frequency X Amplitude=Rateo of secretion
The following describes what process that is regulated by hormones?
1.gamete formation
2.mating ability attractiveness
The following hormones regulate what process?
1.GH and somatomedins
2.Thyroid hormone
5.Gonadal steroids
Growth and development
What do the following regulate?
1.Ionic composition of body fluids
2.Volume of body fluids
3.Ca++ and phosphate plasma levels
4.Structural integrity and function of body tissues
5.Direction and rate of energy flow
Internal environment
What do the following regulate?
1.Insulin: Increases glycolysis and promotes storage of metabolites
2.Glucagons, cortisol: Mobilizes energy
3.Ghrelin and Leptin: energy balance, fuel utilization and body weight
Energy metabolism
What hormone increases glycolysis and promotes storage of metabolites?
What hormones are responsible for mobilizing energy?
Glucagons, cortisol.
What hormones are involved with energy balance, fuel utilization and body weight?
Ghrelin and Leptin
What disease is due to Cortisol deficiency?
Addison's Disease