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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Fats are readily oxidized by growth hormone. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. In contrast, GH decreases carbohydrate utilization and promotes the incorporation of amino acids into proteins.
What is a typical finding in respiratory distress syndrome?
It is failure of the respiratory epithelium to secrete adequate quantities of surfactant into the alveoli. Surfactant decreases the surface tension of the alveolar fluid, allowing the alveoli to open easily during inspiration. Without sufficient surfactant, the alveoli tend to collapse, and there is a tendency to develop pulmonary edema.
A man who has been exposed to high levels of gamma radiation is sterile due to destruction of the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules, although he has normal levels of testosterone. Is the pattern of gonadotropin releasing hormone normal?
Yes. Gamma radiation destroys the cells undergoing the most rapid rates of mitosis and meiosis, the germinal epithelium of the testes. This individual is said to have normal testosterone levels suggesting that the secretory patterns of GRH and LH are normal and that his interstitial cells are functional. Because he is not producing sperm, the levels of inhibin secreted by the sertoli cells would be maximally suppressed, and his levels of FSH would be strongly elevated.
The size of the pituitary and adrenal glands increase b/c corticotropin releasing hormone stimulates the pituitary corticotropes to secrete ACH, which in turn stimulates the adrenals to secrete corticosterone and cortisol. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Higher plasma levels of cortisol increase protein degradation and lipolysis and therefore decrease body weight.
What is meant when expressing "the power of a muscle"?
It is the work the muscle can perform in a unit of time.This is determined not only by the strength of the muscle contraction, but also by the distance of contraction and the number of times it contracts each minute. The power is generally measured in kilogram-meters per minute. This is equivalent to a muscle lifting 1 kilogram of weight to a height of 1 meter in 1 minute.
If a person runs a 10 kilometer race, what is the source of most of the ATP produced?
Metabolism of glucose, fat and amino acids. The phosphagen system can supply energy for only 8-10 sec. The phosphagen system is ATP and the phosphocreatine system combined. The glycogen-lactic acid system supplies energy for only 1.3-1.6 minutes. Therefore, the aerobic system, which consists of the metabolism of glucose, fats and amino acids, supplies most of the energy in long term exercise.
An athlete on what type of diet is able to exercise the longest before exhaustion occurs?
One on a high carbohydrate diet. He stores nearly twice as much glycogen in the muscles compared with an athlete on a mixed carbohydrate-fat diet. This glycogen is converted to lactic acid and supplies 4 ATP molecules for each molecule of glucose. It also forms ATP 2.5 times as rapidly as oxidative metabolism in the mitochondria.
If muscle strength is increased with resistive training, what is likely to occur with regard to mitochondrial enzymes?
There is an increase in the nuber of myofibrils and up to a 120% increase in mitochondrial enzymes. The components of the phosphagen energy system can increase as much as 60-80% and stored glycogen can increase up to 50%. Also, a 75 -100% increase in stored triglycerides can occur.
What is the basic difference between a fast-twitch and slow twitch muscle fiber?
Fast twitch fibers are more dependent on anaerobic metabolism, and slow twitch fibers are more dependent on aerobic metabolism. fast twitch fibers are more dependent on the phosphagen and glycogen-lactic acid systems than slow twitch fibers are. Slow twitch fibers are organized for endurance and depend on aerobic metabolism; therefore, they have many more mitochondria and more myoglobin, which combines with O2 in the muscle fiber. The number of capillaries that supply the O2 is much gretaer in the vicinity of slow twitch fibers than fast-twitch fibers.
List one effect that tobacco smoking causes on the pulmonary system?
Nicotine constricts the terminal bronchioles of the lungs,, which increases the resistance to air flow in and out of the lungs. also, the smoke has an irritating effect in the bronchiolar trees, which increases fluid secretion. it also (nicotine) paralyzes the cilia on the surfaces of the respiratory epithelial cells which beat continually normally to remove excess fluid and foriegn particles.
Regarding stroke volume, what is the difference between a marathoner and a non-marathoner?
In a marathoner, stroke volume is much higher at rest, and the heart rate is much lower. The heart rate can increase app 270% in a marathoner during maximum exercise, which is a much greater percentage than occurs in a non-athlete. In addition, the maximum increase in CO is app 30% greater in a marathoner.
What is likely to occur in athletes who use androgens to increase performance?
Use of androgens or other steroids(anabolic) to increase muscle strength can enhance athletic performance under certain conditions. However, anabolic steroids can augment the risk of cardiovascular damage b/c they increase the incidence of hypertension, decrease high density lipo proteins, and increase low density blood lipo-proteins. All these factors may encourage strokes and heart attacks. They also decrease testicular function, which decreases the formation of sperm and the bodys production of natural testosterone.