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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The development and continued function of the corpus luteum is dependent on what?
Stimulation by leutinizing hormone and FSH. When the gonadotropic hormones in the blood fall to low levels, the corpus involutes and menstruation begins.
What is Graves' disease?
Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins bind to cell membrane receptors, causing the thyroid to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones(T3 and T4). As for negative feedback, increased plasma levels of T3 and T4 suppress the secretion of TSH. Increased plasma levels of immunoglobulins often cause exophthalomos, and an increased heart rate is a common response to high levels of thyroid hormones.
What does ADH do?
It augments the permeability of the collecting tubules and ducts to water, but not to sodium, which in turn increases water reabsorption and decreases water excretion. urine conc increases.
Where is ADH synthesized?
In the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and has no direct effect on the thirst center.
What effects do estrogens have on bone?
They are believed to have an osteoblast stimulating effect. When estrogen compounds are added as part of post-menopausal replacement therapy, the bone building activity of the osteoblasts is increased to balance the osteoclastic activity.
After birth, what causes closure of the foramen ovale?
After birth, the pressure in the right atrium falls due to a reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance, and the left atrial pressure increases due to an increase in systolic arterial resistance and pressure. The small valve that lies over the foramen ovale on the left side of the atrial septum closes over the opening.
What is type 11 diabetes?
It is characterized by diminished sensitivity of target tissues to the metabolic effects of insulin; there is insulin resistance. as a result, hepatic uptake of glucose is impaired and glucose release is enhanced. it is impaired in muscle as well.
What is the relationship between acromegaly and insulin resistance?
In this condition, high plasma levels of growth hormone cause insulin resistance. There is increased glucose production by the liver and impaired glucose uptake by peripheral tissues.
During exercise, glucose utilization by muscle is increased, which is largely independent of insulin. True/False
What is required for erection to occur?
The arteries leading to the sinuses of the corpora cavernosa are normally constricted. For erection to take place, these arteries must dilate. The release of nitric oxide causes vasodilation in these arteries.
What is the function of prolactin?
It promotes milk production of the alveolar cells of the breast. it is secreted by the mothers anterior pituitary gland, and its conc in the blood rises steadily from the 5th week of pregnancy until the birth of the baby, at which time it is 10-20 times the normal nonpregnant level.
Where does HCG have its greatest function?
It is secreted from the trophoblast cells. It binds to leutinizing hormone receptors on the cells of the corpus luteum, thereby stimulating estrogen and progesterone secretion during the first weeks of pregnancy. Without it, involution of the CL would occur, followed by menstruation and abortion of the pregnancy.
Obstetricians frequently induce labor how/
By rupturing the membranes, so that the babys head stretches the cervix more forcefully than usual, or they irritate it in other ways.
What is the relationship between ultraviolet light and vitamin D3?
Exposure of the skin to UV light results in conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D3, which is converted to 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol, the active form of vit D3, which is required to stimulate the absorption of calcium from the GI tract.
After birth, the pressure in the pulmonary artery decreases greatly. What is the cause of this?
The pulmonary vascular resistance greatly decreases as a result of expansion of the lungs. In the unexpanded fetal lungs, the blood vessels are compressed b/c of the small volume of the lungs. Immediately upon expansion, these vessels are no longer compressed, and the resistance to blood flow decreases severalfold.