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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Glands that secrete hormones (endocrine glands)
pituitary
hypothalamus
thyroid
parathyroid
adrenals
pancreas
testes and ovaries
pineal
kidneys
heart
thymus
Adrenal glands
-On top of the kidneys

-Made up by the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.
Adrenal cortex
-ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex during stress.

Corticosteroids produced are:

1. Glucocorticoids
2. Mineralocorticoids
3. Cortical sex hormones
Glucocorticoids
Produced by adrenal cortex

EX: cortisol and cortisone

-Involved in glucose regulation and protein metabolism.

-Have antiinflammatory effects
Mineralocrticoids
Produced by adrenal cortex

EX: aldosterone

-Regulate plasma levels of sodium and potassium.
Cortical sex hormones
Produced by adrenal cortex

-Secretes small amounts of androgens (male sex hormones).

-Overproduction in women may cause masculinizing effects.
Adrenal medulla
-Produces epinephrine and norepinephrine
Pituitary Gland
-Found at the base of the brain

Two main lobes: anterior and posterior

-Connected to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum
Anterior pituitary
-Synthesizes direct hormones and indirect hormones
Direct hormones
-Synthesized by the anterior pituitary

1. Growth hormone

2. Prolactin
Growth Hormone (GH)
Direct hormone of the anterior pituitary

-promotes bone and muscle growth

-Overproduction of GH in adults causes acromegaly, disproportionate overgrowth of bones.
Prolactin
Direct hormone of the anterior pituitary

-Stimulates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands
Tropic hormones
Synthesized by the anterior pituitary

-Stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones

1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone

2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone

3. Luteinizing hormone

4. Follicle-stimulating hormone

5. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

6. Endorphins
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary

-Stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize glucocorticoids
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary

-Stimulates thyroid gland to synthesize and release thyroid hormones
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary

-IN WOMEN: stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. Also, it regulates progesterone secretion.

-IN MEN: stimulates interstitial cells of testes to synthesize testosterone
Follicle-Stimulating hormone (FSH)
Tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary

-IN WOMEN: causes maturation of ovarian follicles that begin secreting estrogen

-IN MEN: stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules and sperm production
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
-Unclear
Endorphins
Tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary

Neurotransmitters with pain relieving effects
Posterior pituitary
-It does not synthesize hormones: it stores and releases them, which are produced in the hypothalamus.

1. Oxytocin

2. Antidiuretic hormone
Oxytocin
Hormone in the posterior pituitary

-Increases strength and frequency of uterine muscle contractions.

-Also stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Hormone in the posterior pituitary

-Promotes water reabsorption and increases blood volume (increasing blood pressure).
Hypothalamus
-Located above pituitary gland

-Regulate pituitary gland secretions with negative feedback.
Thyroid
-Affect function of nearly every organ in body.

IN CHILDREN: Growth and development

IN ADULTS: Metabolic stability

-Thyroid hormones: Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
T3 and T4
-T3 is five times more potent than T4

-All of T4 is secreted by thyroid gland.

-Only 20% of T3 is produced by the thyroid gland

-They come from tyrosine
Pancreas
-It's both an exocrine and endocrine organ.

-The islets of Langerhans perform the endocrin functions.

-Alpha cells produce glucagon

-Beta cells produce insulin
Glucagon
-Produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas.

-stimulates protein and fat degradation
Insulin
Produced by beta cells of the pancreas

-actions are antagonistic to those of glucagon and glucocorticoids.

-Underproduction leads to diabetes (high blood glucose levels)
Parathyroid glands
-four small structures in the posterior surface of the thyroid

-they synthesize and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates plasma Ca2+ concentration.

-It raises Ca concentration in the blood by stimulating Ca release from the bone and decreasing Ca excretion in the kidney.
Kidneys
-They produce renin when blood volume falls

-Stimulates adrenal cortex to release aldosterone (helps restore blood volume by increasing sodium reabsorption at the kidney, leading to increase in water).

-Produce erythropoietin (EPO)
Erythropoietin (EPO)
-Produced by kidneys

-A glycoprotein that stimulates red cell production

-It causes:

a) stim. of stem cells to differentiate into rubriblasts
b) increased rate of mitosis
Gastrointestinal hormones
-Stomach releases gastrin when food is ingested. It stimulates glands to secrete HCl (because of food in stomach)


-Secretin is released by small intestine when acidic food enters stomach


-Cholecystokinin is released by small intestine because of fats and causes bile to be released.


-Bile digests fats
Pineal Gland
-Tiny structure at base of brain

-Secretes hormone melatonin (role in regulation of circadian rhythm)