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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
types of anterior pituitary hyperfunctions
prolactinoma, GH hypersecretion (acromegaly, gigantism), cushing's disease
classic staining of tumor cells for prolactinoma, GH hypersecretion, Cushing's disease
chromophobic, acidophilic, basophilic
types of anterior pituitary hypofunctions
Simmonds disease (generalized panhypopituitarism), single hormone deficiencies
frequent causes of Simmond's disease (pituitary cachexia)
pituitary tumors, postpartum pituitary necrosis (sheehan syndrome)
Sheehan syndrome
postpartum pituitary necrosis - characteristic of hemorrhage and shock, first you lose gonadotropins, then TSH and ACTH
symptoms of GH hyposecretion
dwarfism, hypoglycemia, insulin sensitivity, anemia, decreased muscle strength
function of oxytocin
induces uterine contraction and milk ejection from mammary alveoli
frequent cause of SIADH
ectopic ADH secreting tumor (ie small cell carcinoma in the lungs)
symptoms of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas
headache, hypopituitarism, visual loss, cranial nerve palsy
craniopharyngioma
childhood benign tumor, remnats of the Rathke pouch, not a true pituitary tumor, characteristics include nests and cords of squamous or columnar cells in loose stroma (~embryonic tooth bud enamel organ), often cystic, often expands into papillary projections
Nelson syndrome
pituitary adenoma due to bilateral adrenectomy
empty sella syndrome
hypopituitarism caused by conditions that destroy all or part of the pituitary
serum T3 and T4 bound to what?
thyroid-binding globulin (TBG)
congenital anomalies for thyroid gland
thyroglossal duct cyst (most common, does NOT lead to alterations in thyroid function); ectopic thyroid tissue
causes of goiters
Due to suppression of thyroid hormone production which inhibits negative feedback to TSH.
ie. iodine deficiency, hashimoto's thyroiditis, physiological enlargement (puberty or pregnancy), goitrogens (suppress thyroid hormone production), dyshormonogenesis
laboratory abnormalities in hypothyroidism
decreased serum T4, decreased total T4, increased serum cholesterol, decreased T3 resin uptake
clinical syndromes of hypothyroidism
adults - myxedema; children - cretinism
causes of myxedema
treatment for hyperthyroidism, hashimoto's thyroiditis, iodine deficiency, idiopathic
clinical characteristics of myxedema
cold intolerance, weight gain (low metabolism), lower pitch voice, slowness, constipation, face puffiness, dry skin, hair loss, increase relaxation phase of deep tendon reflexes
causes of cretinism
iodine deficiency, failure of thyroid migration from tongue, maldevelopment of thyroid, enzyme deficiencies for thyroid hormone production, transplacental transfer of autoimmune antibodies
clinical characteristics of cretinism
mental retardation, dwarfism, large tongue, protuberant abdomen
clinical features of hyperthyroidism
restlessness, heat intolerance, tremor, weight loss, muscle wasting, diarrhea, tachycardia/arrhythmias, amenorrhea, *exophthalmos (proptosis due to cross-autoimmunity)
what is grave's disease?
hyperthyroidism due to diffuse toxic goiter
epidemiology of grave's disease
more common in women than men; incidence is increased in HLA-DR3 and HLA-B8 positive individuals
mechanism of grave's disease
thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) reactes with TSH receptors; thyroid growth immunoglobulin stimulates hyperplasia and enlargement
causes of hyperthyroidism
grave's disease, plummer disease, pit hyperfunction, struma ovarii, exogenous administration of thyroid hormones
plummer disease
combination of hyperthyroidism, nodular goiter, and absence of exophthalmos
Struma ovarii
ovarian teratoma made up of thyroid tissue
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
autoimmune disorder with a slow, inapparent course (first euthyroid, then hyperthyroid, then late hypothyroidism) that causes hypothyroidism.
histological characteristic of hashimoto's thyroiditis
massive lymphocyte infiltrate with germinal center formation