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41 Cards in this Set

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A condition caused by an abnormally high circulatin level of corticosteroid hormones produced naturally by the adrenal glands
Cushing syndrome
A condition that results from a deficiency in thyroid hormone
Myxedema
A term that refers to any toxic conditin that results from thyroid hyperfunction
thyrotoxicosis
the formation or Production of Ketone bodies
Ketoaenesis
A diabetic coma in which the level of ketone bodies is normal. It is caused by hyperosmolarity of extracellular fluid and results in dehydratin of intracellular fluid
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic (HHNK) coma
A rare and potentialy life threatening disorder caused by a deficiency of the corticosteroid homones normaly produced by the adrenal cortex
Addison disease
the formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates
Gluconeogenesis
the breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Glucogenolysis
What are the Primary functions of Insulin
to increase glucose transport into cells
to increase glucose metabolism to cells
to increase liver glycogen levels
to decrease blood glucose concentration toward normal levels
What are the common causes of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Inadequate insulin dose
failure to take insulin
infection
increased stress(trauma, Surgery)
Increased dietary intake
decreased metabolic rate
alcohol consumtion
pregnancy
what are the cautions for the intravenous administration of Glucose
50% Dextrose should not be administered to infants or young children.
administration of 50% Dextrose may lead to neurological deficiency therefor administration of thiamine before or during the administration of Dextrose should be considered for PT suspected of having a thiamine deficiency
Causes of Thyroid gland disorder
Congenital defects
Genetic disorders
infection
tumors
Autoimmune disorder
Hormonal disorders during puberty or pregnancy
nutritional disorders
Chushing's Syndrome is caused by what?
adrenal gland tumor corticosteroid drugs
enlargement of adrenal glands
due to pituitary tumor
the endocrine system is composed of what?
glands and tissues that produce and secrete homones
what are the major endocirne glands
the pituitary, thyroid, and parathyroid glands, the adrenal cortex and medulia, the pancreatic islets and the ovaries and testes
The endocrine glands secreate hormones directly into what?
the blood stream
Most hormones can be categorized as what?
Proteins, polypeptides, derivatives of amino acids, or lipids
Hormones can be classified as steroid or nonsteroid? True or false
True
Disorders of the endocrine system arise from the effects of what?
the imbalance in the production of one or more hormones
What is Diabetes?
a systemic disease of the endocrine system, resulting from a dysfunctin of the pancreas.
What does the pancreas do?
It is the chief regulator of the glucose levels in the blood.
What are the islets of Langerhans
pancreatic islets, ducts in the pancreas composed of alpha and beta cells and other cells
What do pancreas beta cells release?
Insulin, when blood glucose levels rise.
What do pancreas alpha cells release?
Glucagon, when blood glucose levels fall
what is a normal serum glucose level in the blood?
60 - 120 mg/dl
What function does the liver serve?
It serves as a blood glucose buffer system. It removes glucose from the blood when it is in excess. It also returns glucose to the blood when insulin secretion decline.
How does Insulin and glucogon function as a feedback control system?
They work to maintain normal serum glucose concentrations.
Low serum glucose levels stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to secrete what?
epinephrine.
What are the two classifications of Diabetes?
type 1, insulin dependent
type 2, non-insulin dependent
What type of Diabetic is most often adults over 40 who are overweight?
Type 2 non-insulin dependent
What are the three types of Insuline available?
rapid, intermediate, and long lasting.
You observe a patient with a very round face, thick trunk, and extremely thin arms and legs. He tells you he has an adrenal gland disorder. You suspect?
Cushing syndrome
The primary functions of insulin are to:
Transport glucose into the cells
When testing a patient's blood glucose level, you obtain a reading of 120 mg/dL. This reading is:
The high end of normal
Endocrine glands secrete their hormones into the:
Bloodstream
. If needed (as in the absence of insulin), fatty acids in the liver can be metabolized and used for energy. The eventual breakdown products of fatty acids in the liver are known as:
Ketone bodies
The type of diabetes that causes the body to destroy its own insulin-producing cells is:
Type 1
. A diabetic patient exhibits Kussmaul breathing to:
Compensate for metabolic acidosis
Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia may include:
Combative behavior
In a patient with diabetes, DKA is likely to result from:
Infection
Administration of dextrose 50% can precipitate neurological complications in:
Alcoholic patients