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34 Cards in this Set

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Metabtropic Receptors
Open via G-protein
Directly or Indirectly opens ion channels
What are Steroid Hormones?
Synthesized from cholesterol
Lipid-Soluble
Act on receptor INSIDE cells
Circulate bound to proteins
How do Peptide and Protein Hormones effect a response?
By acting on a receptor located ON the cell membrane
G-Protein Systems
Regulate cAMP formation
Binding of hormone inhibits/stimulates adenylyl cyclase which controls cAMP formation
-cAMP stimulates protein kinase A which phosphorylates other proteins -->cellular response
Hormones which act by binding to a receptor ON the cell membrane
Catecholamines & Peptide/Protein Hormones
Glycogen Phosphorylase is _____ when phosphorylated
ACTIVE
Glycogen Synthase is _______ when phosphorylated
INACTIVE
Gq activates Phospholipase C to form ______
DAG & PIP3
PIP3 promotes the release of _____ to increase cellular activity
Ca2+ from intracellular storage sites like the ER
DAG activates ______ which produces a cellular response.
Protein Kinase C
Activation of Phospholipase A2 causes the conversion of a plasma membrane phospholipid into ______
Arachidonic Acid
Arachidonic Acids is converted via COX into _____ or _____ or by lipoxygenase into _____
Prostaglandins or Thromboxanes
Leukotrienes
Hormones released from the Posterior Pituitary
Oxytocin
ADH or Vasopressin
Functions of Oxytocin
1) Milk Letdown
2) Uterine Contraction
3) Induce Labor
4) Reduce post-partum bleeding
Functions of ADH
Increase water reabsorption in kidneys
Increase vasoconstriction
Regulators of ADH Release
Alcohol Inhibits ADH
Blood Volume
Central Osmoreceptors
Hormones released from the Anterior Pituitary
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Thryoid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Growth Hormone (GH)
Prolactin

A F G L P T
-RH suffix
Hypothalamus
-SH suffix
Pituitary
Long Loop Feedback Control
Target Gland Hormone inhibits Anterior Pituitary or Hypothalamus
Short Loop Feedback Control
Trophic Hormone inhibits Hypothalamus (ie. ACTH)
Functions of Growth Hormone
Cartilage & Bone Growth
Protein Metabolism
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Lipid Metabolism
GH effect on Cartilage & Bone Growth
Acts of ephyseal growth plates to calcify them.
GH effect on protein metabolism
GH helps cells increase amino acid uptake & stimulate protein synthesis
GH effect on carbohydrate metabolism
GH has an anti-insulin effect --> keeps blood glucose high
GH effect on lipid metabolism
GH increases breakdown of fat --> Increase in plasma fatty acids --> Increased Triglyercide levels
Effect of decresed Growth Hormone in kids
Pituitary Dwarfism
Effect of decresed GH in adults
Increased body fat
Decreased bone mass
Depression
Effect of increased GH in kids
Gigantism
Effect of increased GH in adults
Acromegaly
Regulation of Prolactin
No prolactin unless pregnant
During pregnancy, estrogen stimulates synthesis of prolactin but inhibits its function
Function of Prolactin
Stimulates mammary gland development & milk production
Inhibits GnRH
Why is GnRH inhibited during pregnancy?
GnRH is inhibited during pregnancy b/c you don't want to ovulate during preg.
After pregnancy,
Can IGF-1 stimulate the anterior pituitary via long loop feedback?
No, can either stimulate hypothalamus via long loop
or
inhibit hypothalamus or ant. pituitary via long loop