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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Father of Endocrinology
Claude Bernard
Chemical messengers secreted into bloodstream stimulates response in another tissue or organ
Target Cells
have receptors for hormone
Endocrine Glands
produce hormones
Endocrine System
includes hormone producing cells in organs such as brain, heart and small intestine.
the study of the combined function of the nerves and glands that release Hormones in the body
Nervous System
evolved for responding to rapid changes in the environment and for precise control over specific tissues
Endocrine system
made-to-order for slow steady communication relying on simple diffusion or circulatory system to deliver its chemical messengers
Endocrine glands
no ducts, release hormones into tissue, have dense capillary networks to distribute hormones
Exocrine Glands
glands whose secretions pass into a system of ducts that lead ultimately to the exterior of the body.
Examples of Exocrine Glands
Liver (bile producing glands)
Gastric Glands
Sweat Glands
Prostate Glands
Why is a Cell a Target?
because it has a specific receptor for the hormone
born via bloodstream act on distant site
acting on local env., act on adjacent cells
acting on cell that secreted them
acting within the cell that produces them
Neutral cells that release chemical signals into the bloodstream
Amino Hormones
derived from tyrosine
derived from FFA's
Peptide and Protein hormones
encoded in genes
steriod hormones
derived from cholesterol
Amino Hormones (General)
derived from tyrosine
includes catecholamines Ep and Nor-Ep (water sol)
includes T4 and T3 (lipid Sol)
Eicosanoids (General)
derived from FFA's
inc. Prostaglandins, Prostacyclins, Leukotrienes and Thromboxanes
Archodonic acid is the most abundant precurser of these hormones
Protein and Polypeptide Hormones (General)
range from 3 - hundreds of amino acids
water soluble
comprise largest number of hormones
Peptide Hormone Synthesis
1) synth as prepohormones in ribosomes and processed to prohormones in ER
2)Golgi Ap. packaged in to vesicles
3) released into extra-C- space in response to influx of Ca++
Actions of Hormones
- some attach to protein receptor on membrane
- others enter cell directly on DNA
- in both enzymes are getting turned off
Hormone Receptors
Proteins within cells targeted for activity that combine with the hormone and initiate the expressor of a specific gene
Receptors for Water Soluble
Found on surface of target cell, on the plasma membrane
Receptors for Fat Soluble
Reside in the Nucleus of the target cell (sometimes cytoplasm)
Hormone - Class - Location

Amine (Epinephrine)
Class - Water Sol.

Location - Cell Surface
Hormone - Class - Location

Amine (Thyroid Hormone)
Lipid Soluble

Hormone - Class - Location

Peptide/ Protein
Water Soluble

Cell Surface
Hormone - Class - Location

Steroids and Vit. D
Lipid Soluble

3 Stages of Cell Signaling
1) Reception
2) Transduction
3) Response
Cell Surface Receptors


Principle Mech of Action?
- Cell Surface Receptors
- Generation of 2nd messengers which alter the activity of other molecules usually enz. within the cell

- Intracellular Receptors
- Alter transcriptional activity of responsive genes
Types of Second Messengers
cAMP or gAMP
- activates converstion of ATP
Phospholipase C
- causes inositol triphosphate and diacyglycerol to be formed

- activate calmodium
Control of Endocrine Activity
Rate of Production

Rate of Delivery

Rate of Degradation and Elimination