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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
actions of insulin/insulin-like drugs?
TK activity
liver: increases glucose stored as glycogen
muscle: increases glycogen and protein synthesis, K+ uptake
fat: aids TG storage
what type of drug: tolbutamide & chlorpropamide?
first generation sulfonylureas
what type of drug: glyburide, glimepiride, glipizide?
second generation sulfonylureas
mechanism of action of sulfonylureas?
close K+ channel in beta cell membrane so cell depolarizes, triggering of insulin release via Ca2+ influx
what are sulfonylureas used for?
stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM; require some islet function so useless in type 1
side effects of first generation sulfonylureas?
disulfiram-like reactions
side effect of second generation sulfonylureas?
what is the most grave side effect of metformin?
lacti acidosis
can metformin be used in patients without islet function?
action of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone?
increase target cell response to insulin
action of acarbose and miglitol?
alpha glucosidase inhibitors - inhibit intestinal brush border alpha glucosidases; delayed sugar hydrolysis and glucose and glucose absorption lead to decreased postprandial hyperglycemia
mechanism of propylthiouracil, methimazaole?
inhibit organification and coupling of thyroid hormone synthesis - used for hyperthyroidism
toxicity of propylthiouracil, methimazole?
skin rash, agranulocytosis (rare), aplastic anemia
what are orlistat and dsibutramine used for?
obesity management (orlistat is long-term)
use of glucocorticoids?
Addison's disease, inflammation, immune suppression, asthma
mechanism of finasteride?
5 alpha reductase inhibitor
mechanism of flutamide?
nonsteroidal competitive inhibitor of androgens at the testosterone receptor
mechanism of leuprolide?
GnRH analog with agonist properties when used in pulsatile fashion and antagonist properties when used in continuous fashion
mechanism of clomephine?
partial agonist at estrogen receptors in hte pituitary - prevents normal feedback inhibition and increases release of LH and FSH from the pituitary, which stimulates ovulation
drug of choice for women with estrogen receptor + breast cancer?
tamoxifen - competitively inhibits estradiol at estrogen receptors
treatment for polycystic ovarian syndrome?
ketoconazole, spironolactone