• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/102

Click to flip

102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
acromegaly
development into overly large size because of excessive production of growth hormone; also called gigantism.
Addisonian crisis
acute adrenocortical insufficiency.
adenohypophysis
one of the two portions of the pituitary gland, it produces hormones that are not neurohormones; also called the anterior pituitary lobe.
adrenal cortex
the outer layer of the adrenal gland, it produces hormones that are important in regulating the water and salt balance of the body.
adrenal glands
glands located on top of each kidney that produce and secrete certain sex hormones, as well as other hormones that are vital to maintaining the body's water and salt balance; also called suprarenal glands.
adrenaline
hormone produced by the adrenal glands that mediates the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system; also called epinephrine.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
one of several molecules derived from a common precursor, proopiomelanocortin, that is essential for development of the cortex of the adrenal gland and its secretion of corticosteroids.
aldosterone
hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is important in the regulation of water and salt balance in the body.
alpha cells
cells located in the islets of Langerhans that secrete glucagon.
anabolic steroids
synthetic androgens used to increase muscle mass.
androgens
male sex hormones.
androstenedione
a steroid sex hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, testes, and ovaries.
anterior pituitary lobe
one of the two portions of the pituitary gland; it produces hormones that are not neurohormones; also called the adenohypophysis.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe of the pituitary gland, it constricts blood vessels and raises the blood pressure; also called vasopressin.
beta cells
cells located in the islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin.
beta endorphins
proteins that have the same effects as opiate drugs such as morphine.
calcitonin
a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland that is important in the regulation of calcium levels in the body.
Conn's syndrome
a condition that results in excess secretion of aldosterone, most commonly caused by benign tumor.
corticosteroids
any of several steroids secreted by the adrenal gland.
cortisol
the most important corticosteroid secreted by the zona fasciculata, it has many effects on the body.
Cushing's syndrome
a disorder caused by excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal glands resulting in obesity, abnormal hair growth, high blood pressure, emotional disturbances, and the so-called moonface.
diabetes insipidus
a disorder of the pituitary gland that results in large volumes of dilute urine.
diabetes mellitus
a condition that results from impaired production of insulin by the pancreas.
dwarfism
stunted growth due to a deficiency of growth hormone.
endocrine glands
glands that empty secretions (hormones) directly into the blood.
endocrine system
a system of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones that regulate many body functions, including growth, reproduction, temperature, metabolism, and blood pressure.
epinephrine
hormone produced by the adrenal glands that mediates the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system; also called adrenaline.
estrogen
hormone produced by the ovaries, it is one of three major female hormones.
exocrine glands
glands that empty their products through ducts, usually onto epithelial surfaces.
exophthalmos
abnormal protrusion of the eyes resulting from hyperthyroidism.
feedback inhibition
the concept that once the desired effect of a hormone has been achieved, further production of the hormone is inhibited until it is needed again; also referred to as negative feedback.
follicles
small cavity glands within the thyroid gland that contain thyroglobulin.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
hormone that regulates the production of both eggs and sperm, as well as production of reproductive hormones.
gigantism
development into overly large size because of excessive production of growth hormone; also called acromegaly.
glands
a cell, group of cells, or an organ that selectively removes, concentrates, or alters materials in the blood and secretes them back into the body.
glucagon
hormone produced by the pancreas that is vital to the control of the body's metabolism and blood sugar level.
glucocorticoids
hormones secreted by the zona fasciculata that play an important role in metabolism and inhibit inflammation.
gluconeogenesis
a process that stimulates both the liver and the kidneys to produce glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules.
glycogen
a long polymer from which glucose is converted in the liver (animal starch).
goiter
an enlarged thyroid gland.
gonadotropin releasing hormone
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that influences the release of LH and FSH.
gonads
the reproductive glands.
growth hormone (GH)
hormone that stimulates growth in most tissues, especially of long bones in the extremities. Also called somatotropin.
growth hormone release-inhibiting hormone
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone; also called somatostatin.
growth hormone-releasing hormone
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone.
hormone sensitive lipase
an enzyme that is activated by glucagon, it breaks triglycerides down into free fatty acids and glycerol.
hormones
proteins secreted by glands to regulate body functions.
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
one of three major female hormones; it is produced by a developing embryo after conception.
hyperparathyroidism
condition that results in a loss of calcium from the bones, as well as increases in serum calcium levels, caused by excess secretion of parathyroid hormones.
hyperthyroidism
overactivity of the thyroid gland, which results in increased metabolic rates, weight loss, rapid heart rate, elevated blood pressure, diarrhea, and at times, abnormal protrusion of the eyes.
hypocalcemia
potentially life-threatening low blood calcium levels resulting from loss of parathyroid function.
hypophysis
the gland that secretes hormones that regulate the function of many other glands in the body; also called the pituitary gland.
hypothalamic-pituitary axis
the interactions of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
a complex set of interactions that regulates the secretion of corticosteroids.
hypothalamohypophvseal portal system
a specialized set of blood vessels that carry releasing factors from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary lobe.
hypothalamus
the basal part of the diencephalon, it regulates the function of the pituitary gland.
infundibulum
the stalk that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.
inhibiting factors
compounds that travel from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland in a specialized set of blood vessels; also called releasing factors.
insulin
hormone produced by the pancreas that is vital in the control of the body's metabolism and blood sugar level.
Islets of Langerhans
a specialized group of cells in the pancreas where insulin and glucagon are produced.
isthmus
a narrow band of tissue that connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
hormone that regulates the production of both eggs and sperm, as well as production of reproductive hormones.
medulla
the inner portion of the adrenal glands, which produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
mineralocorticoids
hormones produced in the zona glomerulosa that are important in the regulation of water and salt balance in the body.
negative feedback
the concept that once the desired effect of a hormone has been achieved, further production of the hormone is inhibited until it is needed again; also called feedback inhibition.
neurohormones
hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe.
neurohypophysis
one of the two portions of the pituitary gland; it is an extension of the central nervous system and secretes hormones called neurohormones; also called the posterior pituitary lobe.
norepinephrine
hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is vital in the function of the sympathetic nervous system.
osmoreceptors
specialized neurons in the brain that regulate the secretion of ADH.
ovaries
the female reproductive glands.
oxytocin
a hormone that causes the smooth muscles of the pregnant uterus to contract and milk to be released from the breasts of lactating women.
pancreas
an organ of both the endocrine and digestive systems, it produces the hormones insulin and glucagon.
parafollicular cells
cells located between the follicles in the thyroid gland that produce the hormone calcitonin.
parathyroid glands
four glands that are embedded in the posterior portion of each lobe of the thyroid, they produce and secrete parathyroid hormone.
parathyroid hormone
hormone produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, it maintains normal levels of calcium in the blood and normal neuromuscular function.
pituitary gland
the gland that secretes hormones that regulate the function of many other glands in the body; also called the hypophysis.
positive feedback
the concept that once the desired effect of a hormone has been achieved, production of the hormone is continued.
posterior pituitary lobe
one of the two portions of the pituitary gland; it is an extension of the central nervous system and produces hormones called neurohormones; also called the neurohypophysis.
progesterone
produced by the ovaries, it is one of three major female hormones.
prolactin
hormone that plays an important role in milk production in women.
prolactin-inhibiting hormones
hormones released by the hypothalamus that influence inhibition of prolactin.
prolactin-releasing hormones
hormones released by the hypothalamus that influence the release of prolactin.
prostaglandins
a group of hormone-like fatty acids that are produced in many body tissues, including the uterus, brain, and kidneys.
releasing factors
compounds that travel from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland in a specialized set of blood vessels; also called inhibiting factors.
retroperitoneum
the space behind the peritoneum.
somatomedins
proteins produced in the liver, skeletal muscle, and other tissues that are stimulated by growth hormone.
somatostatin
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone; also called growth hormone release-inhibiting hormone.
somatotropin
hormone that stimulates growth in many tissues, especially of long bones in the extremities; also called growth hormone (GH).
testes
the male reproductive glands.
testosterone
the major androgen produced by the testes.
tetany
painful muscle spasms that result from a low blood calcium level.
tetraiodothyronine (T4)
one of the two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, it is essential for normal growth and development in children, as well as regulation of body metabolism.
thyroglobulin
a protein to which thyroid hormones are bound.
thyroid
a large endocrine gland that is located at the base of the neck and produces and excretes hormones that influence growth, development, and metabolism.
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
hormone that controls the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland; also called thyrotropin.
thyrotropin
hormone that controls the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland; also called thyroid- stimulating hormone.
thyroxine-binding globulin
a protein synthesized in the liver that binds to hormones T3 and T4
triiodothyronine (T3)
one of the two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, it is essential for normal growth and development in children, as well as regulation of body metabolism.
vasopressin
a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe of the pituitary gland, it constricts blood vessels and raises the blood pressure; also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
zona fasciculata
one of three divisions of the adrenal cortex, it produces corticosteroids.
zona glomerulosa
one of three divisions of the adrenal cortex, it produces mineralocorticoids.
zona reticularis
one of three divisions of the adrenal cortex, it secretes a few relatively weak male sex hormones, or androgens.