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31 Cards in this Set

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what is a thyroid storm?
stimulation of the thyroid by palpation- it is a medical emergency
what is myxoedema?
hypothyroidism
name a cause of secondary hypothyroidism
pituitary disease; absence of TSH leads to atrophy of thyroid gland
name a drug that can cause hypothyroidism
Lithium carbonate- inhibits release of thyroid hormones
what is the treatment for hypothyroid?
low dose thyroxine and increase slowly
what are the S/Sx of hypothyroid?
hypometabolism: constipation, bradycardia, cold intolerance, dry skin, alopecia
how do you Dx hyperparathyroid?
PTH levels
Ultrasound
EKG
this disease causes gradual destruction of the adrenal cortex
Addison's Disease

70% are autoimmune
your labs show < cortisol, < aldosterone, what do you suspect?
Addison's disease
if calcium levels fall, what should rise?
phosphorus
what is the MCC of hypoparathyroid?
injury to the gland during head or neck surgery
what lab results should you expect with hypoparathyroid?
Low Calcium
High phosphorus
Decreased serum PTH
what is the most specific test for Addsions's disease?
ACTH stimulating test
what are some causes of primary adrenocorticoid insufficiency (Addison's)?
Autoimmune
TB infection of adrenal gland
Granulomatous Disease
withdrawl of steroids
your pt presents with dark tanning of the skin, tireness, wt loss, hypoglycemia, what do you suspect?
Addison's
what's another name for primary hyperaldosteronism
Conn's Syndrome
name 2 causes of Conn's syndrome
Adrenal tumor
Hyperplasia of the adrenals
how do you treat Conn's syndrome (> aldost)
If tumor-> remove
If hyperplasia-> spirinalactone
how does hyperaldosterone affect electrolytes?
increases Na retention
increases K excretion

however, 40% of pts will have normal K levels
S/Sx of Conn's (> aldost)
> B/P
Tireness
muscle weakness
> urination
how do you do the serum aldosterone test?
it must be done in the morning and pt must be laying down for at least 30 min.
what is cushing's disease?
increase in cortisol due to pituitary tumor

You'll see > ACTH, > cortisol
what condition can mimick Cushing's by > cortisol levels?
Lung small cell carcinoma
T/F The majority of causes of Cushing's are due to ACTH dependent causes
True
How do you diagnose Cushing's?
Dexamethazone suppression test
Do a 24 hr free cortisol level test

If the level is >100ug, then it is confirmed

Then do an MRI or ultrasound
In a lab test to detect Cushings, your plasma ACTH is undetectable, what could be the cause?
the condition may be caused by an adrenal tumor
this is a tumor of the adrenal medulla that results in an increase of catecholamines
pheochromocytoma
name the signs and symptoms of Pheo
Paroxysmal > B/P
Severe headache
>appetite
wt loss
palpitations
Test to confirm Pheo
MIBG
A pt with high B/P is unresponsive to meds, what do you suspect?
Pheo
Paroxysmal symptoms of:

Severe headache
Palpitations
Rapid heart rate
Sweating

suggest?
Pheochromocytoma