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49 Cards in this Set

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What are hormones?
chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported by the bloodstream to reach target cells in other tissues.
Are the effects of the endocrine system long lasting than the CNS?
yes
What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands?
Exocrine glands have ducts or tubes.
What is an example of an exocrine gland?
sweat glands
What is the largest group of hormones?
peptide hormones
How do protein hormones pass through the cell membranes?
They bind to specific receptors on the cell surface.
Are protein hormones first or second messengers?
First messengers
Do steroids have to bind to cell receptors?
No because they are lipid derivative.
What is negative feedback?
a stimulus that produces a response that OPPOSES the original stimulus.
What is positive feedback?
A stimulus that produces a response that REINFORCES the original stimulus.
Give an example of positive feedback.
blood clotting
Give an example of negative feedback.
blood calcium levels
What are the two types of regulating hormones?
inhibiting and releasing
What do the regulatory hormones control?
the activities of the anterior pituitary gland
What is the master gland?
Pituitary gland
What is TSH and where does it come from?
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) stimulates the release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland. It comes from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
What kind of feedback is TSH release?
negative feedback
What does the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) do?
Stimulates the release of steroid hormones at the adrenal glands
What is FSH?
Follicle-stimulating hormone which promotes egg development in females and the secretion of estrogens.
Which hormone is responsible for preparing a women for pregnancy and inducing ovulation?
LH (Luteinizing hormone)
What does Prolactin (PRL) do?
production of mammary glands and milk in females
Which cells are most sensitive to GH?
muscle cells and chondrocytes
How does GH help with creating energy?
It breaks down glycogen from the liver into glucose.
Which hormone stimulates melanocytes in the skin to produce melanin?
MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone)
Where is GH released from?
Anterior pituitary gland
Where is LH, PRL and MSH released from?
Anterior pituitary gland
True or False: The posterior pituitary gland creates the two hormones it releases.
FALSE
What is ADH?
decreasing the amount of water lost at the kidneys. it is inhibited by alcohol.
Which hormone causes the uterus to constrict during child birth?
oxytocin
What are T3 and T4 responsible for?
Increase energy utilization, oxygen consumption, and growth and development.
What does Calcitonin do?
Decreases the amount of calcuim in the blood by putting it IN the bone.
Which hormone has the opposite effects of Calcitonin?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
What are the three glucocorticoids produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland?
Cortisol, Corticosterone, Cortisone
What is the principal mineralocorticoid?
Aldosterone
What does Aldosterone do?
It stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium ions. This reduces urine output when extracellular potassium levels get too high.
Where are androgens produced?
cortex of the adrenal gland and the testes
Which two hormones are secreted by the adrenal medulla?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
When and where is Calcitriol released?
It is released from the kidneys when PTH is present.
Which hormone is released in response to low oxygen levels in kidney tissues?
Erythropoietin (EPO)
What is Renin?
hormone released by the kidney in response to a decrease in blood volume or pressure.
What is the chain reaction that Renin starts?
Angiotensin in the liver --> angiotensin I-->becomes Angiotensin II in the lungs
What is angiotensin II?
strong vasoconstrictor which increases blood pressure and causes Aldosterone to be released.
What hormone does the heart produce?
Atrial natriuritic peptide (ANP)
What does ANP do?
increases sodium release and excretions from the kidneys. It also decreases Aldosterone which lowers blood pressure.
What do alpha cells produce?
glucagon in the pancreas
Where is insulin produced?
from the beta cells in the pancreas
Which hormones do the testes produce?
androgens (testosterone) and inhibin (during FSH)
What three things do the ovaries do?
Produce estrogens, secrete inhibin, and releases progestins
What are prostaglandins?
lipid hormones known as local hormones that only affect adjacent cells.