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32 Cards in this Set

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Functions of Endocrine System
Differentiation of CNS and reproduction in fetus
Stimulation of growth and development
Coordination of reproductive systems, making reproduction possible
Maintenance of an optimal internal environment
Initation of adaptive responses
Hormones are classified by four ways...
Structure/Shape
Gland of Origin
Effects it causes
Chemical Composition
Glands in the brain/head
Pituitary
Hypothalamus
Pineal
Glands of the body
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Thymus
Adrenals
Pancreas
Ovaries/Testes
Hormone general rules (4)
1. Have specific patterns and rates of secretion.
2. Work on a negative or positive feedback system.
3. Affect only cells that have the appropriate receptors
4. Generate a specific activity.
Concept of negative feedback
One increases, the other decreases
Particulars of Lipid Soluble Hormones
Circulate bound to a carrier protein
Very few circulate freely
Diffuse through plasma membrane and bind to nuclear receptors without assistance
Steriods, thyroid hormones
Particulars of Water Soluble Hormones
Short half life
Circulate free and unbound
Binds to cell surface receptor in order to send its signals into the cell
Insulin, pituitary and parathyroid hormones
Up regulation
low concentrations of the hormone increases the # of receptors on the cell surface
Down regulation
High concentrations of the hormone decreases the # of receptors on the cell surface
The 2 most popular "Second Messengers"
cAMP and Calcium
Hormone: ACTH
What is(are) the ...
Secretory Cell Type?
Target Organ?
Functions?
Adrenocorticotropic H.

Corticotropic
Adrenal Gland
Regulates growth and secretion of the AG, particularly cortisol and the androgenic steriods
Hormone: MSH
What is(are) the ...
Secretory Cell Type?
Target Organ?
Functions?
Melanocyte-Stimulating H.

Melanotropic
Anterior Pituitary
Promotes secretion of melanin and lipotropin by the AP; makes skin darker
Hormone: GH
What is(are) the ...
Secretory Cell Type?
Target Organ?
Functions?
Somatotropic H. Growth H.

Somatotropic
Muscle, bones, liver: Regulates metabolic rate related to growth and adaptation to stress & increased protein synthesis, glycogenolysis, and fat mobilization

Liver: induces formatin of somatomedins, or insulin-like growth factors that have actions similar to insulin
Hormone: TSH
What is(are) the ...
Secretory Cell Type?
Target Organ?
Functions?
Thyroid Stimulating H.

Thyrotropic
Thyroid
Increased production & secretion of the thyroid hormone
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
ADH & Oxytocin
ADH is used for...
Water absorption in the kidneys and fluid retention, causing to have more concentrated urine.
Oxytocin is used for...
Uterine contractions during labor, and speculated to sperm motility.
Thyroid controls...
all metabolic processes of the body
Thyroid responsible for..
growth and development
cellular metabolism
consumption of oxygen
heat production
T-3 Normal
80-200
T-4 Normal
4.5-11.5
What effects the function of the thyroid?
Serum iodide
Parathyroid's primary function through what hormone
control serum calcium levels through the use of PTH
How does PTH work?
Increases serum phosphate levels which indirectly increase serum calcium levels
Normal Serum Calcium levels:
Normal Ionized Calcium levels:
9-10.5
4.5-5.6
What is the major disorder of the pancreas?
Diabetes Mellitus
What are the three types of secretory cells of the Islets of Langerhans and what do they secrete?
A-Cells: Glucagon
B-Cells: Insulin
D-Cells: Gastrin
Major job of Insulin
Decrease blood sugar by moving glucose into the cell
Adrenal Glands are made of two components. What are they and what percent of weight do they account for?
Adrenal Cortex: 80%
Adrenal Medulla: 20%
Adrenal Cortex secretes what hormones?
Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
Mineralocorticoids(Aldosterone)
Adrenal androgens and estrogen
What are the effects of aging on the Endocrine System?
T4 decreased, T3 decline, hyperthyroidism prevalent, TSH diminishes