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38 Cards in this Set

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7 HORMONES OF THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY
1. Growth Hormone (somatotrophin)
2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
4. Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH)
5. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
6. Interstitial Cell-Stimulating hormone (ICSH)
7. Prolactin
GROWTH HORMONE
- also called somatotrophin
- promotes protein synthesis/stimulates cell division
- helps fat to be used as enery (maintains bld glucose)
- directly affecs appearance by influencing height
- regulated by releasing 2 hormones: GHRH & GHIH)
- from anterior pituitary
THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE
- TSH
- found in anterior pituitary
- causes throid cells to secrete the thyroid hormones
T4 thyroxine
T3 triiodothyronine
- stimulates the GH
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE
- ATCH
- stimulates secretion of cortisol from adrenal cortex
- stimulates growth of adrenal glands
FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE
- FSH
- secreted by anterior pituitary
- stimulates developments of eggs in ovaries and sperm in testes
- stimulates estrogen production in females
LUTEINIZING HORMONE
- LH
- secreted by anterior pituitary
- causes ovulation
- stimulates formation of corpus luteum in ovaries so it can produce progesterone
INTERSTITIAL CELL-STIMULATING HORMONE
- ICSH
- secreted by anterior pituitary
- stimulates interstitial cells in the male sex hormone testerone
PROLACTIN
- secreted from anterior pituitary
- promotes development of glandular tissue in breasts
- stimulates production of milk
- function in males is unknown
POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND HORMONES
- hormones are actually produced in the hypothalamus and stored in teh posterior pituitary
- 2 hormones:
Antidiuretic Hormone
Oxitocin
ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE
- ADH
- secreted/stored in posterior pituitary
- Increases H2O reabsorption of kidneys resulting in less H2O for the body
- conserves H2O for the body
- helps maintain normal bld volume
- drinking alcohol inhibit ADH resulting in increase of urine output
- stimulus for secretion is decreased of H2O in body
- secreted in large amounts can cause vasoconstriction therefore called VASOPRESSIN PRECURSOR for ADH
- once in bld stream vasopressin becomes ADH
OXITOCIN
- secreted/stored in posterior pituitary
- causes uterine muscle contration
- causes ejection of milk in lactating breasts
- may be used to hasten delivery, control bleeding after delivery or stimulate milk ejection
THYROXIN T4 & TRIIODOTHYRONIN T3
- both act on targe cells in the same way
- T3 is stronger but has shorter duration
- affects metabolism of carbs, lipids and proteins
- can speed or slow body activities prn
- increases all resp; heat and energy production
- helps change glycogen into glucose
- stimulates tissue growth by stimulating protein synthesis
- must have mineral iodine to be produced from amino acids
- secretion of T3 and T4 stimulated by TSH
PITUITAR
Pituitary
THYRO
Thyroid
CALC
Calcium
SOMATO
Body
GONAD
Sex Gland
MAST/MAMMO
Breast
ACRO
Extremities
TROPIN
Stimulating
CRIN/O
Secrete
GYNECO
Female
GONADATROPIC HORMONES
- react with each receptor site in ovaries and testes to regulate development, growth and function of these organs
PARATHYROID GLANDS
- 4 small masses of epithelial tissue that are on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
- function is to maintain Ca-phosphorous balance
THYROID GLAND
- very vascular gland found in neck
- consists of 2 lobes (one on ea. side) of the trachea close to cricoid cartilage)
- function is to regulate body metabolism
- must have iodine to function properly
PITUITARY GLAND
- small gland about 2 cm diameter
- known as mater gland
- connected to the hypothalamus by a slender stalk called INFUNDIBULUM
- most pituitary activities are controlled by the hypothalamus
- divided into anterior and posterior portions
THYMUS GLAND
- located near the midline of anterior portion of thoracic cavity
- also considered lymphatic gland
- large in size during puberty
- recently disovered that this gland secretes a large number of hormones
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
- functions in the regulation of body activities
- consist of glans that secrete hormones
EXOCRINE
- have ducts that carry their secretions to a surface

Ex: sweat, salivary and lacrimal
ENDOCRINE
- does not have ducts
- secretions go directly into the bld stream
HORMONES
- chemical messengers
- when secreted into bld stream only influence cells with their particular receptor sites
- either proteins or steroids
- bring about their characteristic effects by modifying cellular activity
- many hormones reulated by (-) feedback mechanism, some controlled by other hormones and others are affected by direct nerve stimulation
TARGET TISSUE
- cells that have receptor sites for a given hormone
SOMATOSTATIN
- also called GHIH (growth hormone inhibiting hormone)
- secreted by the hypothalamus during HYPERglycemia
THYMOSIN
- plays a role in the development of the immune system
- aids in the development of T cells
GHRH
- released by the hypothalamus to regulated growth hormone
- growth hormone releasing hormone
- released during HYPOglycemia and exercise
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
- control system reduces or reverses a stimulus like a furnace and thermostat
- occurs when there is a decrease in hormone levels in the bld
- decrease in hormone levels
- stimulates a chain reaction to increase bld hormone level
- usually involves a secretion of another hormone
CALCITONIN
- reduces Ca levels in bld
- decreases rate of osteoclasts (break bone down)
- increases rate of osteoblasts (build bone up)
- stimulus is HYPERglycemia
- works with parathyroid hormone to regulate bld Ca levels
- comes from thyroid gland
PARATHYROID HORMONE
- PTH
- increases bld Ca level activity in bone-releasing more Ca into bld
- Ca reabsorption from kidney tubules into the bld which decrease amount of Ca lost in urine
- Vitamin D is necessary for absorption of calcitonin (decrease Ca level)
- acts more slowly than calcitonin
- secreted in response to decrease Ca levels