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87 Cards in this Set

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Endocrine vs Nervous systems
Nv: Fast response
Short lived actions
End: Generally slow
Generally premanent changes

both work closely together
Endocrinology
the study of chemical messengers released from cells into the surrounding tissues adn fluids
Functions of the endocrine system
1 control total body metabolism
2 controll growth and develpoment
3 controll and coordinate the functions fo reproductive organs
Hormone
Chemical messenders released itnto the tissue fluids
circulating / local
Lipid / water
Neural / non neural
Circulating hormones
enter bd and cause changes in target at a distace.
Local hormone
exert affect locally
autocrine
paracrine
autocrine
hmn that exerts effect on cells that made them
Paracrine
hmn that exerts effect on C nearby
Lipid souluble Hormones
enter through plasma membrane, bind to receptors in cytoplasm and are transported to nucleus, attach to DNA and change Cell function
steroid
thyroid
nitrous oxide
Water soluble hormones
bind on the membrane surface
amines
peptide and protein
prostglandins, etc
Steroid hormones
Lipid soluble hmn
derived from cholesterol
Estrogen, testosterone
Thyroid hormones
Amines
from thyroid
Amines
Hmn derived from amino acids and iodine
my or may not be water soluble
Thyroid hmns, epinephrine, norepeinephrine, Dopamine
Peptide and Protein hormones
water soluble
TSH, Insulin
Prostaglandins
small lipid-type hmns
produced by all body tissues
local hmns
bind on Cell surface so called water soluble (not fat soluble)
Neurohormones
produced by nerve cells
circulating hmns
Adrenaline, noradrenaline, Oxytocin, ADH
Target Cells
have protine receptors for that particular hmn and respond to it
Protein receptors
for specific hmn
Cell membrane or in cytoplasm
Non-Target Cells
do NOT have protein receptors for that hmn
no response to it
Negative feedback
increased presence of a hmn causes slow down in production
Positive Feedback Systems
Presence of hmn causes increase in production of stimulating hmn
Child birth, orgasm
Hypothalamus
in base of diencephalon of brain secretes neurohmn
release either Post. pituitary (to bd) or Ant. pituitary
First level of hormonal controll
releasing or inhibitory hmns
Hypophyseal portal system
transports hmns from Hypothalamus to anterior Pituitary
Levels of hormonal controll in endocrine system
first - Hypothalamus
second - ant. pituitary
third - target glands for Pituitary
Releasing hormone
stimulates the release of another hmn
Inhibiting Hormone
inhibits the release of another hormone
esp. Ant. Pituitary
TRH
Thyrotropin releasing Hmn
Ant. Pit.
Release TSH
CRH
Corticotropin Releasing Hmn
Ant. Pit. release ACTH
GHRH
Growth Hmn REleasing Hmn
GHIH
Dont worry about this one.
Growth Hmn Inhibiting Hmn
GnRH
Gonatropin REleasing Hmn
Ant. Pit. Release FSH adn LH
PRH
Prolactin REleaseing Hmn
Ant. Pit. Release prolactin
PIH
Don't Worry About this one.
Prolactin Inhibiting Hmn.
Dopamine
Posterior Pituitary
Neurohypophysis
just release hmn... not make... into cap.
Vasopressin
Oxytocin
Vasopressin
ADH
released by post. Pit.
Oxytocin
OT
REleased into Post. Pit.
1-promotes Milk let down
2-stim uterine contract
ACTH
Adrenocoticotropic Hmn
Adrenal cortex
Stim release of Cortisol
TSH
Thyroid Stim. Hmn.
thyroid
Stim f(x) and growth of thyroid
FSH
Follicle Stim. Hmn.
Gonads
Stim gonad development
FSH in Female
follicle development and it's release of estrogen and progesterone
FSH in Male
Spermatogenisis in seminiferous tubules
formation of ABP in sertoli Cells
LH
Lutenizing hormone
Fem: Stim.Ovulation and release of Progesterone and estrogen from Corpus Luteum
Ma: Promotes Testosterone prod. by leydig Cells
Prolactin
PRL
Fe: Promote mamary gland develpoment during pregnancy and milk production after
Ma:amplifies LH not there sterile
Growth Hormone
Promotes general growth in bod.
stim release of Somatomedin
Somatomedin
causes bone elongations @ epiphysial Plates
Gigantism
excess GH in growing hs.
Acromegaly
excess GH in adults
Continued growth of body tissues without length to bn
Pituitary Dwarfism
GH deficit during growth years
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
Embryo: promotes development of melanin in skin, eyes and brain
Thyroid Gland
both sides of trachea with an isthmus
Follicles and Parafollicular Cells
Follicles of Thyroid Gland
make T3 and T4 from Tyrosine
Secrete is due to TSH
Prarfollicular Cells of Thyroid
produce & secrete Calcitonin
Tyrosine
a.a. used to make thyroid hmns.
Calcitonin
Causes Ca++ to be deposited in bn
decrease bd level of Ca++
Triiodithyronine
Active form of Thyroid Hmn
T3
Thyroxine
T4
converted to T3 in body of Cells
Thyroblobulin
(colloid)
prot molec. stores T3 and T4
Whe TSH stim thyroid, more is made while the stored is broken down and released into bd
Colloid
Stored T3 and T4 in center of follicles
Thyroglobulin
Iodine
required to make T3 and T4
# indicates how many I atoms in the molec.
Function of THyroid Hormones
increase Cell metabolism
Formation of bn in epiphyseal plates
Stim GH secretion
Nv sys development in embryo
etc
Hypothyroidism
decreased thyroid function
endemic goiter
Hashimoto's THyroiditis
Myxedema
Cretinism
Endemic Goiter
Iodine deficency
can't make T3 and T4
Keeps being stim more and more so goiter
Goiter
enlarged Thyroid Gland
swelling in neck
treat w/ iodine supplements
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
most common in US
Autoimmune disorder
Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies
Goiter
treat w/ Thy. hmn supplements
Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
block release of T3 and T4
Myxedema
prolonged hypothoroidism
overweight
puffy face
low metabolism and move slow
don't tolerate cold
Cretinism
Hypothyroidism in embryo and baby
mental retardation
stunted growth
premanent
Hyperthyroidism
overactive thyroid
Grave's disease
Grave's Disease
Hyperthyroid
autoimmune - TSAb
excessive T3 and T4
exophthalamos
underweight
hyperactivity
High meatbolic rate
goiter maybe
Thyroid Stimulating Antibodies
TSAb
mimic action of TSH but no feedback controll
Adrenal Glands
Suprarenal glands
Medulla and cortex
Adrenal medulla
middle of glands
Modified sympathetic ganglion
norepinephrine and epinephrine
fight/flight response, pnic attacks
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
prepare us for short term emergencies
inc. hr, bp, br
dec. digestion
Adrenal Cortex
outer layer
Zona glomerulosa, Z. Fasiculata, Z. Reticularis
Zona Glomerulosa
Outer layer Adrenal cortex
Secretes Aldosterone
Aldosterone
controlls Na+ and K+ balance in bd
Mineralocorticoid (major one in bd)
Mineralocorticoid
Any of a group of steroid hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex and regulate the balance of water and electrolytes in the body
Zona Fasciculata
Middle layer of Adrenal Cortex
Secretes Cortisol from stim by ACTH
Cortisol
Stim by ACTH from post. Pit.
Long term stress hmn
Maintains bd glucose level for energy during stress
Zona Reticularis
Inner layer adrenal cortex
Secretes Testosterone
Primary source in Fe.
Disorders of Adrenal Cortex
Cushing's Syndrome
Addison's Disease
Adrenogenital syndrome
Cushings Syndrome
Over secretion of Adrenocortical hormones (esp. Cortisol) usually due to a tumor
Spindly legs
Buffalo hump on upper back
Pendulous abdomen
poor wound healing
Addison's Disease
Undersecretion of Adrenocortical hmn
Decreased Na+ and increasesd K+ in bd
Decreased cardiac output
Cardiac arrhythmias
Mental sluggishness
Adrenogenital Syndrome (and related disorders)
Overproduction of Testosterone
no affect in adult males
Overproduction of Testosterone in male children
Precocious Puberty
premature development of secondary male characteristics
Overproduction of Testosterone in female adults
Masculinization
Develop beard and changes in hair and body fat placement
Overproduction of Testosterone In Female children
Masculinization
enlarged Clitoris to resemble a penis
Other male characteeristics