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60 Cards in this Set

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Glands that secrete their products into ducts that carry the secretions into body cavities, into lumen of an organ, or to the outer surface of the body.
Exocrine Glands
Glands that secrete their products (hormones) into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells, rather than into ducts. The secretion then diffuses into capillaries and is carried away by the blood stream.
Endocrine Glands
Small region of the brain, inferior to the thalamus, is the major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems.
Hypothalamus
A pea-shaped structure that lies in the sella turcica of the spehoid bone and attaches to the hypothalamus.
Pituitary Gland
Name the stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
Infundibulum
The pituitary gland has two anatomically and functionally separate portions. The _______ _______ _______ acounts for about 75% fo the total weight of the gland. It develops from an outgrowth of ectoderm called the hypophyseal pouch in the roof of the mouth. The ______ ______ ______ also develops from an ectodermal outgrowth, this one is called the neurohypophyseal bud.
Anterior Pituitary Gland
Posterior pituitary Gland
Which Portion of the pituitary is larger and developes from an outgrowth called the hypophyseal pouch
Anterior Pituitary Gland
Which Portion of the pituitary is smaller and develops from the outgrowth called the neurohypophyseal bud
Posterior Pituitary Gland
The posterior pituitary gland contains axons and axon terminals of more than 10,000 neurons whose cell bodies are located in the ________ and __________ nuclei of the hypothalamus
Supraoptic and Paraventricular nuclei
Where are the Supraoptic and Paraventricular nuclei located?
Hypothalamus
The axon terminals in the posterior pituitary gland are associated with specialized neuroglia called _________
Pituicytes
A third region of the pituitary called the ____ _______, atrophies during fetal development and ceases to exist as a separate lobe in adults
Pars intermedia
The anterior pituitary gland could also be called
adenohypophysis
Release of anterior pituitary gland hormones is stimulated by _______ ________ and suppressed by _______ _________ from the hypothalamus.
releasing hormones
inhibiting hormones
Hypothalamic hormones reach the anterior pituitary gland through a portal system. A portal system carries blood between two capillary networks without passing through the heart. This is the __________ portal system
Hypophyseal
In the hypophyseal portal system blood flows from the median eminence of the hypothalamus into the infundibulum and anterior pituitary gland principally through several _______ _______ _______
Superior hypophyseal arteries
These arteries are branches of the internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries. The superior hypophyseal arteries form the _______ _______ of the hypophyseal portal system, a capillary network at the base of the hypothalamus
Primary plexus
Near the median eminence and above the optic chiasm are two groups of specialized neurons, called __________ cells, that secrete hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones into the primary plexus.
Neurosecretory cells
From the primary plexus, blood drains into the hypophyseal portal ______ that pass down the outside of the infundibulum.
Veins
In the anterior pituitary gland, the hypophyseal portal veins redivide into another capillary network call the _______ ________ of the hypophyseal portal system.
Secondary plexus
The posterior pituitary gland is also known as:
Neurohypophysis
The posterior pituitary gland does not synthesize hormones; it does store and release two hormones called;
oxytocin; oxytoc=quick birth
antidiuretic hormone ADH or also called vasopressin
The posterior consists of ________ and ______ terminals of hypothalamic neurosecretory cells
pituicytes and axon
Blood is supplied to the posterior gland by the _______ ________ arteries, which branch from the internal carotid arteries
Inferior hypophyseal
In the posterior pituitary gland, the inferior hypophyseal arteries drain into the ________ plexus of the __________ process, a capillary network that receives secreted oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone.
Capillary
Infundibular
From the capillary plexus, hormones pass into the posterior _________ ______ for distribution to target cells in other tissue
hypophyseal veins
The butterfly-shaped ______ ______ is located just inferior to the larynx
Thyroid gland
The right and left lateral lobes lie one on either side of the trachea. Connecting the lobes is a mass of tissue called an;
Isthmus
Microscopic spherical sacs called _______ _______ make up most of the thyroid gland
Thyroid follicles
The wall of each follicle consists primarily of cells called _______ _____, most of which extend to the lumen (internal space) of the follicle.
Follicular cells
When the follicular cells are inactive their shape is ____ ______ to ________, but under the influence of TSH they become cuboidal or low columnar
low cuboidal to squamous
The main blood supply of the thyroid gland is from the ________ ________ artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, and the inferior _______ ______, a branch of the thyrocervical trunk from the subclavian artery.
Superior Thyroid
Thyroid artery
The thyroid gland is drained by the superior and middle ________ ______, which join the __________ veins or internal jugular veins.
Thyroid veins
brachiocephalic
The nerve supply of the thyroid gland consists of ________ fibers from the superior and middle ______ ________ ________.
Postganlionic
cervical sympathetic ganglia
Preganglionic fibers from the ganglia are derived from the _____ through _____ thoracic segments fo the spinal cord.
second; seventh
Attached to the posterior of the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland are small, round masses of tissue called the;
parathyroid glands
Microscopically, the parathyroids contain two kinds of epithelial cells. The more numerous cells, called _______ _______ are the major sourcd of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)
principal cells
The parathyroids are abundantly supplied with blood from branches of the _______ and ________ thyroid arteries.
superior and inferior
Blood is drained by the ______, ______ and _______ thyroid veins
superior, middle, inferior
The nerve supply of the parathyroids is derived from the thyroid branches of the ________ ________ ________.
cervical sympathetic ganglia
The paired ______ (suprarenal) glands, one of which lies superior to each kidney, have a flattened pyramidal shape.
Adrenal
During embryonic development, the adrenal glands differntiate into two structurall and functionally distinct regions: A large, peripherally located _______ _______, which represents 80 to 90% of the gland by weight develops from mesoderm; a small, centrally located _______ ______ develops from ectoderm.
adrenal cortex
adrenal medulla
The adrenal cortex is subdivided into three zones; the outer zone, just deep to the connective tissue capsule si called the _____ _______. The middle zone or _____ _______ , is the widest of the three zones and consists of cells arranged in long straight cords. The cells of the inner zone, the ____ ________ are arranged in branching cords
Zona glomerulosa
Zona fasciculata
Zona reticularis
The adrenal medulla consists of hormone producing cells, called _____ ____, which surround large blood vessels.
Chromafin cells
Chromaffin cells receive direct innervation from neurons of the _________ division . Because the ANS controls the chromaffin cells directly, hormone release can occur very quickly
Sympathetic
The main arteries that supply the adrenal glands are the several superior ________ arteries arising from the inferior _______ artery, the middle _______ artery from the aorta, and the inferior _______ arteries from the renal arteries.
Suprarenal
phrenic
suprarenal
suprarenal
The principal nerve supply to the adrenal glands is from preganglionic fibers from the _______ ________ nerves, which pass though the celiac and associated sympathetic plexuses.
Thoracic splanchnic
The ______ is both an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland
pancreas
It is located posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach and consists of a head, body and tail. Roughly 99% of the pancreatic cells are arranged in clusters called ________; these cell produce digetive enaymes.
acini
Scattered among the exocrine acini are 1-2 million tiny clusters of endocrine tissue called _______ ______ or islets of ________
Pancreatic islets
Langerhans
The arterial supply of the pancreas is from the superior and inferior _______________ arteries and from the _______ and superior __________ arteries.
pancreaticoduodenal
splenic
mesenteric
The nerves to the pancreas are autonomic nerves derived from the _____ and superior _______ plexuses. Included are the preganglionic ______, postganglionic _______ and sensory fibers
celiac
mesenteric
vagal
sympathetic
The sympathetic fibers that enter the is lets are ________ and are accompanied by sensory fibers, especially for pain.
vasomotor
Develops from the foregut area that later becomes part of the small intestine.
Pancreas
Derived from the roof of the stomodeum (mouth) called the hypophyseal (Rathke's) pouch
Anterior pituitary gland
Originates from the neural crest, which also produces sympathetic ganglia
Adrenal medulla
Derived from tissue from the same region that forms gonads
Adrenal cortex
Arise from the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches (two answers)
Parathyroid glands and thymus
arises from the ectoderm of the diencephalon
Pineal gland
T or F
The secretory portion of the posterior pituitary gland is the axons of neurosecretory cells; the secretory portion of the anterior pituitary gland is glandular epithelium.
T