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53 Cards in this Set

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Pituitary function
produces two hormones
drives other glands to secrete hormones.
Endocrine funciton
endocrine glands secrete CHEMICAL HORMONES to the BLOOD STREAM
Exocrine function
exocrine glands secrete ENZYMES through ducts, to epithelial surfaces.
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroids
Adrenals
Pineal
Gonads
Kidney
Heart
Hypophysis
pituitary
hypophyseal veins
take blood from pituitary gland
portal veins
take blood from pituitary gland to median eminance
Pituitary location
sella turcia of the sphenoid bone; attached to inferior surface of the hypothalamus via infundibulum.
Pituitary location
sella turcia of the sphenoid bone; attached to inferior surface of the hypothalamus via infundibulum.
Blood supply of the pituitary
-superior/inferior hypophyseal arteries
-capillary beds
-portal veins
-hypophyseal veins
capillary beds
within the infundibulum and pituitary gland
MSH
melanocyte stimulating hormone
-gives skin its pigment.
superior/inferior hypophyseal arteries
branches of the internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries of the brain.
Adenohypophysis
anterior lobe of the pituitary (hypophysis) gland
pars distalis
aka adenohypophysis
Secretions of Adenohypophysis
ACTH
TSH
FSH
LH
GH
PROLACTIN
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone;
-stimulates the release of adrenal hormone at the adrenal gland cortex
TSH
thyroid stimulating hormone
-drives the secretion of thyroid hormones
FSH
follicle stimulatine hormone
-females: development of ovarian follile.
-males: regulation of sperm production
-stimulates gonadal hormone release.
LH
luteinizing hormone;
-female: stimulates ovulation/production of female sex hormones. (estrogen/progest)
-Male: stimulates male sex hormones.(testosterone)
GH
Growth Hormone;
enhances and maintains body size
increases growth
Prolactin
female: stimultates the production of milk in mammary glands.
male: involved in the integrity of reproductive system.
pars intermedia
intermediate lobe of pituitary; only produces MSH
Neurohypophysis
posterior lobe of the hypophysis (pituitary)
Oxytosin/Vasopressin
secretions of the neurohypophysis
Oxytocin
hormone released adn made in the brain.
FM: stimulates milk ejection reflex/response of mammary glands. Lossens ligaments for childbirth.
male: unknown
Vasopressin
ADH
Reduces absorption of liquid in the kidneys for urination; limits diuresis (the absorption of liquid in kidneys and elimination)
Thyroid location
inferior to larynx; 2 lobes with a conncting isthmus
Blood supply to thyroid
Superior/Inferior Thyroid aa.
Superior = from external carotid ar.
Inferior = from subclavian aa.
Thyroxin
produced by thyroid
-inicreases all cell metabolism
calcitonin
released by thyroid
-decreases blood CAlCIUM levels
Parathyroids
4; located or embedded in thyroid lobe posterior surfaces.
-produces parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone
INCREASES CALCIUM blood levels
Pancreas
location: posterior to stomach
-sends enzymes via pancreatic duct to the duodenal ampulla.
-produces:
Insulin Glucagon Somatostatin
Pancreatic Polypeptide
alpha cells
-produced by pancreas
-aka, glucagon
-raises blood sugar levels
beta cells
produced by pancreas
-aka, insulin
-decreases blood sugar levels.
delta cells
produced by pancreas
-aka, somatostatin
-regulates/inhibits alpha and beta cell production.
Fcells
produced by pancreas
-aka, pancreatic polypeptide
-regulates the production of pancreatic hormones.
Adrenal glands
location: superior kidney pole

produces different hormones relative to area; cortex vs. medulla
Adrenal cortex
produces:
-mineralcorticoids (zona glomerulosa)
-glucocorticoids (zona fasiculata)
-sex hormones (zona reticularis)
Mineral corticoids
-produced by zona glomerulosa, outer cortex.
-maintains H2O/Salt balance, regulates sodium excretion.

ADRENAL CORTEX PRODUCTION
Glucocorticoids
produced by zona fasciculata, middle zone of the adrenal gland.
-Cortisol is a glucocorticoid
-Affect metabolism of glucose
zona reticulata
innermost zone of the adrenal cortex (between zona fasciculata and medulla)
-produces sex hormones:
Androgens; Testosterone, small amounts in both male/females
Adrenal Medulla
inner portion of the adrenal gland
-produces epinephrine/norepinephrine
-stimulated by preganglionic sympathetic fibers to increase B.P. and heart rate, for fight/flight
Pineal gland
location: posterior midbrain
Production: melatonin; active in sleep/wake cycles, Circchadian rythm.
Gonads (female)
Production of estrogen, progesterone.
-prepares the uterus for pregnancy
-maintains the ovarian cycle.
-prompts development of seconday sex characteristics, etc.
Gonads (male)
Production: Testeosterone.
Prompts development of male secondary sex characteristics, sex drive.
Kidney productions
renin
erythropoeitin
calcitriol
Renin
produced by the kidney
-one of many factors that maintains blood pressure.
Erythropoeitin
produced by the kidney
-involved in production of stem cells in the marrow
Calcitriol
produced by the kidney
-responds to parathyroid production, stimulates absorption to increase blood levels of Calcium and Phosphorus
Heart
produces ANP
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
ANP; produced by the heart.
-Function: stimulate secretion of Na/H2O
Senses b.p.; if high, ANP is released to suppress ADH levels.
This allows water to be eliminated.