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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Maintenance of a stable internal environment
Dynamic Equilibrium
Fluctuations of a parameter around a set point
No nervous or endocrine input

Ex. Vasodilation of hypoxic tissues
Extrinsic Regulation
Requires nervous or endocrine input.
1) Receptors
2) Integrator
3) Effectors

Ex. Raise body temperature.
1) Thermoreceptors
2) Hypothalamus
3) Sweat glands, peripheral arteries dilate
Positive Feedback
Effectors increase initial stimulus.

Ex. Childbirth: Baroreceptors on cervix stimulate oxytocin, which causes uterine contractions.
Negative Feedback
Effectors oppose stimulus
Intracellular Fluid (ICF)
2/3 of total body water
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
1/3 of total body water. Also: blood, lymph, serous fluid, synovial fluid, etc.
Interstitial Fluid
Fluid around cells. 3/4 of ECF.
- Decrease in water

- Increase in sodium

- Hypernatremia (too much sodium in ECF)

- Hypertonic ECF

- Water exits the cell (crenation)
Water Intoxication
- Hyponatremia (too little sodium in the ECF)

- Increase in water

- Decrease in sodium

- Hypotonic ECF

- Water enters cell - lysis
Sodium (Electrolyte Imbalance)
Hypernatremia: Increase electrochemical gradient of sodium to move into cell. Increase rate of action potential.

Hyponatremia: Decrease electrochemical gradient of sodium. Decrease rate of action potential.
Potassium (Electrolyte Imbalance)
Hyperkalemia: Decreases gradient for potassium to leave cell. Difficulty repolarizing. Increases the rate of action potential.

Hypokalemia: Increases gradient for potassium to leave the cell. Decreases gradient for sodium to enter cell. Decreases rate of action potential.
Calcium (Electrolyte Imbalance)
Hypercalcemia: Increase threshold of voltage-gated channels. Decrease rate of action potentials.

Hypocalcemia: Decrease threshold. Increase rate of action potentials.
Acid-Base Balance
pH (power of hydrogen): Measure of hydrogen ions in solution.

Usually 7.35 - 7.45

> 7.45 = alkalosis
< 7.35 = acidosis
Renal Compensation
- If ECF is acidic, then secrete more hydrogen ions and reabsorb more HCO3-

- If ECF is alkaline, then reabsorb more hydrogen ions and secrete more HCO3-
Buffer Systems
Work by accepting or donating a hydrogen ion. Ex. Protein buffer system, hemoglobin buffer system, phosphate buffer system, bicarbonate buffer system.

(Review buffer systems)
Respiratory Acidosis
- Caused by hypoventilation (not breathing)

- Fixed by hyperventilating (respiratory compensation)

- Renal compensation: Reabsorb more bicarbonate to bind to free hydrogen ions, secrete hydrogen ions
Respiratory Alkalosis
- Caused by hyperventilation

- Fixed by hypoventilating (respiratory compensation)

- Renal compensation: Secrete HCO3- , reabsorb hydrogen ions to bind to excess HCO3-
Metabolic Acidosis
- Impaired renal function

- Lactic acidosis

- Ketoacidosis: From breaking down structural proteins for energy

- Fixed by hyperventilation

- Renal compensation: HCO3- reabsorbed, hydrogen ions secreted
Metabolic Alkalosis
- Caused by repeated, profuse vomiting

- Fixed by hyperventilation

- Renal compensation: Secrete HCO3- , reabsorb hydrogen ions
Types of Cellular Communication in Endocrine System
- Neural communication: Involves neurotransmitters

- Direct cellular contact: Gap junctions

- Endocrine communication: takes longer to have effects, longer lasting effects

- Paracrine communication: Uses paracrine factors (same molecules as hormones, but stay in tissue of origin)
Categories of Hormones
- Amino acid derivatives

- Peptide hormones

- Glycoproteins

- Lipid derivatives

- Eicosanoids
Amino Acid Derivatives
Catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine), thyroid hormones, pineal hormones
Peptide Hormones
Loner chains of amino acids

Ex. Hypothalamic hormones, some anterior and posterior pituitary hormones
Peptides with carbohydrate group

Ex. Anterior pituitary hormones, erthroprotein
Lipid derivatives
Cholesterol-based, steroids (testosterone, estrogen, etc.)