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32 Cards in this Set

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the most common secretory pituitary tumor
Prolactinomas
what do these symptoms suggest?

amenorrhea
galactorrhea
infertility
Vaginal dryness
Hot flashes
prolactinoma; usually micro in women
symptoms of prolactinoma in men
decrease libido
impotence
visual impairment
headache
how do you dianose a prolactinoma
prolactin levels >200 ng/mL
which is the most sensitive test for detecting pituitary tumors and determining their size
MRI
What is the treatment of prolactinomas?
Dopamine agonist
Trans – sphenoidal surgery
Used when the patient has visual field abnormalities or neurologic Sx
what causes gigantism and acromegaly?
hyper secretion of GH
what are the features of acromegaly
Widening of the hands and feet
Coarsening of the facial features
Frontal sinuses enlargement
what is the initial Tx of choice for acromegaly
Trans-sphenoidal microsurgery is the initial Tx of choice
where does 85% of T3 come from?
its converted from T4 in the tissues, liver, muscle, and kidney
what has a negative effect on TSH release
free T4
name some causes of hyperthyroidism
Graves disease
Toxic multinodular goiter
Toxic solitary goiter

results in excess circulating T4 or T3
what are the signs and symptoms of Graves disease
Diffuse goiter
Pretibial myxoedema
Tachycardia with a bounding pulse
Exophthalmos
Lid lag (usually on downward eye movement)
Lid retraction
Peri-orbital puffiness
Increased lacrimation
Conjunctival edema and ulceration
atrial fib, heart failure and weight loss in a pt over 60, what do you suspect?
Think hyperthyroidism
how do you treat hyperthyroidism?
Anti-thyroid drugs:
Carbimazole or methimazole followed by propylthiouracil

Beta-blocking drugs in the initial stages of management

Sub-total thyroidectomy

Radioactive iodine therapy

Tx is based on pt age and history
name the hormones of the drendal gland
Cortisol
Aldosterone
Norepinephrine
Name the hormones produced by the ovaries
Estrogen
Progestrone
Testosterone
what is the half-life of peptide hormones
only a few minutes
how are steroid hormones eliminated from the body?
by inactivating metabolic transformations and excretion in urine or bile
name 2 hormones derived from Amino Acid
Thyroid hormones: T3,T4
Catecholamines: epinephrine and norepinephrine
what is the half-life of thyroid hormones
a few days
what is the half-life of catecholamines
they are rapidly degraded, only a few minutes
name two amino acids needed to synthesize serotonin and histamine
Tryptophan is the precursor to serotonin and melatonin

Glutamic acid is converted to histamine
what class of hormones are prostaglandins, prostacyclins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes
Fatty Acid Derivatives - Eicosanoids
what is the most abundant precursor for eicosanoid hormones
Arachadonic acid
what is the major role of growth hormone
to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-I
what does IGF-I do?
stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes, resulting in bone growth
What class of hormones are catecholamines and thyroxine
Amines, derived from amino acids
what class of hormones are insulin and growth hormone
Peptide hormones
what class of hormones are testosterone and cortisol
fatty acid derivatives
This hormone stimulates development of corpus luteum, release of oocyte, and production of estrogen and progesterone
LH
This hormone stims. the production of testosterone in males
LH