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23 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 cell types of the Islets of Langerhans (endocrine pancreas) and what do they secrete?
1) Alpha cells- secrete glucagon
2) Beta cells- secrete insulin
3) Delta cells- secrete somatostatin (inhibits glucagon and insulin secretion)
What is the function of insulin?
Hormone that decreases glucose by increasing uptake of blood glucose, promoting liver glycogen formation
-Not required for glucose uptake by some tissues
When is insulin released?
Released in response to hyperglycemia
What is the function of glucagon?
Hormone that increases blood glucose by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
What is the most important laboratory assessment of the endocrine pancreas?
Glucose
Transient physiologic hyperglycemia is common in ____ and _____.
Cats and horses
What is persistent fasting hyperglycemia associated with? Persistent hypoglycemia?
Hyperglycemia: diabetes mellitus
Hypoglycemia: insulinoma
How can you determine if hyperglycemia in a cat or horse is transient physiologic hyperglycemia or persistent hyperglycemia?
Measuring fructosamine (average over 2-3 weeks)
Measuring Glycated hemoglobin (2-3 months)
When is insulin usually measured?
When suspect an insulinoma
When are serial glucose curves measured?
To monitor patients and adjust insulin therapy
What 2 domestic animals is diabetes mellitus most commonly seen in?
Dogs & cats
What are the 2 types of diabetes mellitus?
Insulin dependent (dogs)
Insulin resistant (cats)
What causes insulin dependent diabetes mellitus?
Beta cells are destroyed
-Possibly by immune-mediated mechanisms
What are the insulin levels in a cat with insulin resistant diabetes mellitus?
Normal to high
Most cats with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus have _______ in their pancreas.
Amyloid deposits
What are 2 possible causes of insulin resistance (other than maybe amyloid deposits in pancreas)?
1) Glucocorticoids
2) Increased progesterone, growth hormone, occasionally neoplasia
What are 5 typical abnormalities seen on a CBC and biochem of an animal with diabetes mellitus?
1) Increased ALT, alk phos
2) Hypercholesterolemia
3) Hyperglycemia
4) Glucosuria
5) +/- titrational metabolic acidosis, ketosis, ketonuria
How do you monitor a patient's response to insulin therapy?
Serial glucose curves
How often is blood glucose checked for serial glucose curves? For how long?
Every 2 hours for 12-24 horus
Ideally the serial glucose curves shouldn't go any lower than_____ mg/dL.
80-150 mg/dL
The serial glucose curve can detect the Somogyi effect, what's that?
Rebound hyperglycemia following an insulin injection
What are insulinomas?
Tumors of beta cells ---> excessive insulin secretion--> hypoglycemia
How do you test for an insulinoma?
Measure serum insulin and glucose at the same time
-Common in ferrets