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31 Cards in this Set

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Pituitary Hormone

TSH
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
Target - Thyroid gland
Secretion of thyroid hormones
Thyroid hormones released inhibit the pituitary production of TSH
Pituitary Hormone

ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Traget - Adrenal cortex
Glucocorticoid secretion
Stimulates the release of steriod hormones at the adrenal glands (affects glucose metabolism)
Pituitary Hormone

FSH
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

Target - Follicle cells of ovaries in female
Estrogen secretion, follicle development
(promotes egg development, stimulates the secretion of estrogens)
Target - Sustentacular cells of testes in male
Sperm maturation
Pituitary Hormone

LH
Luteinizing hormone
Target - Follicle cells of ovaries in female
Ovulation, formation of corpus lutem, and progesterone secretion
(induces ovulation in women, promotes ovarian secretions of estrogens and the progestens to prepare a woman for pregnancy

Target - Interstitial cells of testes in male
Testosterone secretion
(stimulates androgen release from male testes)
Pituitary Hormone

PRL
Prolactin
Target - Mammary glands
Production of milk
(stimulates the development of the mammary glands and the production of milk)
Pituitary Hormone

GH
Growth Hormone
Target - all cells
Growth, protein synthesis, lipid mobilization and catabolism
(stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis)
(muscle cells and condricites <cartilage> respond the strongest)
Pituitary Hormone

MSH
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
Target - Melanocytes of skin
Increased melanin synthesis in epidermis
(active in fetal development, young children, pregnant women, and some disease states)
Posterior Pituitary Hormone

ADH
Antidiuretic Hormone
Target - Kidneys
Reabsorptioin of water, elevation of blood volume and pressure
(released in response to a rise in electrolyte concentration or drop in blood volume or pressure)
(alcohol inhibits ADH)
(causes peripheral vasil constriction)
Posterior Pituitary Hormone

Oxytocin
Oxytocin
Target - Uterus, mammary glands in female
Labor contractions, milk ejection

Target - Prostate gland in male
Smooth muscle contractions, ejection of secretions
(stimulates the smooth muscle contraction in the walls of the prostate gland)
Thyroid Gland

T4
Thyroxine
Target - Most cells
Increase energy utilization, oxygen development
(contains 4 iodine atoms to attach to thyrosine)
(travel through cytopolasm and attach to the mitochondria and increase rate of ATP production)
Thyroid Gland

T3
Triiodothyronine
Target - Most cells
Increase energy utilization, oxygen consumption, growth, and development
(contains 3 iodine atoms to attach to thyrosine)
(travel through cytoplasm and attach to the mitochondria and increase rate of ATP production)
Thyroid Gland

CT
Calcitonin
Target - bone and kidneys
Decreases Ca 2+ concentrations in body fluids (see fig 11-10 pg 317)
(decreases blood calcium levels; inhibits osteoclasts)
Parathyroid Gland

PTH
Parathyroid Hormone
Target - bone and kidneys
Increases Ca 2+ concentrations in body fluids (see fig 11-10 pg 317)
(increses calcium concentrations in the bloodstream)
(starts osteoclasts, inhibits osteoblasts, to put calcium in blood)
Thymus

Thymosins
Thymosins
Target - Lymphocytes
Stimulate development and maturation of immune response
(embedded in a mass of connective tissue just behind the sternum)
(play a key role in developing and maintaining the immune system)
(large at infancy, increases until puberty, then decreases)
Adrenal Glands (Adrenal Cortex)

Glucocorticoids
Target - Most Cells
Releases amino acids from skeletal muscles, lipids from adipose tissues; promotes liver gllycogen and glucose formation; promotes peripheral utilizationof lipids; anit-inflammatory effects
Adrenal Glands (Adrenal Cortex)

Mineralocorticoids
Target - Kidneys
Increases reabsorption of sodium ions and water from the urine; accelerates urinary loss of potassium ions
Adrenal Glands (Adrenal Cortex)

Androgens
Target - ?
Uncertain significance under normal conditions
Adrenal Glands (Adrenal Medulla)

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Target - Most Cells
Increased cardiac activity, blood pressure, glycogen breakdown, blood glucose; release of lipids by adipose tissue
(accelerate energy utilization and mobilize energy reserves)
(heart responds by increasing rate and force of contraction)
Kidneys

Calcitriol
Steriod hormone released in the presence of PTH
Stimulates teh absorption of Ca and phosphate ions along the digestive tract
Its synthesis is dependant on the availability of vitamin D3 which is absorbed through the skin by being in sunlight
Kidneys

Erythropoietin (EPO)
Peptide hormone released in response to low oxygen levels in kidney tissues
Stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow and therefore increases oxygen delivery to the tissues
Kidneys

Renin
Enzyme released by the kidney in response to a decrease in blood volume, blood pressure or both
Starts an enzymatic chain reaction which eventually causes sodium retention which retains water
Heart

Atrial Natriuritic Peptide (ANP)
releases anp when cardiac muscle cells are excessively stretched
increases sodium and water excretion
Decreases sodium reabsorption
Reduces aldosterone secretion
Vasodilates
Pancreas

Alpha Cells
Produce the hormone glucagon
increases blood sugar level by causing the liver to release glucose that was being stored as glycogen
Pancreas

Beta Cells
Produce the hormone insulin
decreases blood sugar levels by moving glucose into cells for ATP production
Pancreas

Delta Cells
Not at this time.
Testes

Androgens
Interstitial cells of the testes produce steroid hormones known as androgens
The most important androgen is testosterone.
Promotes production of functional sperm
Maintains secretory glands of the reporductive tract
Determines secondary sex characterists
Stimulates protein synthesis and muscle growth
Testes

Sustentacular Cells
Secrete teh peptide hormone inhibin
Released under FSH stimulation to inhibit FSH
Ovaries
Contain female sex cells called ova which develop in special structures called follicles under stimulation of FSH
Follicular cells produce Estrogens which support the egg maturation and stimulate growth of th euterine lining
Provide secondary female sexual characteristics
Follicular dells secrete inhibin which suppresses FSH release
Pineal Gland

Melatonin
Located on the roof of the thalamus
Lowest levels in daylight and highest in the dark
Establishes the day/night cycle (ciradian cycle)
Prostaglandins
see lipid derivative hormones
Three groups of hormones
1.Amino acid derivative
2.Peptide hormones
3.Lipid derivatives