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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Endocrine glands develop from
invaginations of surface epithelium
histological features of islets of Langerhans (5)
-polarized organelles
-lots of RER
-numerous mitochondria
-apical cytoplasm contains secretory granules (each type of cell has characteristic secretory granules)
-gap junctions
islets of Langerhans synthesize (2)
insulin

glucagon
anterior pituitary is also known as (2)
adenohypophysis

pars distalis
anterior pituitary receives blood via
hypophyseal portal venous system
pathway of hypothalamic releasing or inhibitory hormones from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary
superior hypophyseal arteries --> primary capillary plexus --> descending portal vessels --> secondary capillary plexus --> anterior pituitary
anterior pituitary acidophils (2)
somatotrophs
- produce somatotropin (growth hormone)

mammotrophs
- secrete prolactin
function of somatotropin (growth hormone)
controls bone elongation via stimulation of the synthesis and secretion of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) from the liver
functions of prolactin (2)
development of mammary glands

initiation and maintenance of lactation
anterior pituitary basophils (3)
corticotrophs
- produce ACTH

thyrotrophs
- produce thyrotropin (TSH)

gonadotrophs
- secrete FSH and LH
function of ACTH
stimulates the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol)
function of thyrotropin (TSH)
stimulates thyroid follicular epithelia to synthesize and secrete thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)
function of FSH:

*females
*males
*females:
- oogenesis

*males:
- spermatogenesis
function of LH:

*females
*males
*females:
- ovulation
- formation of the corpus luteum

*males:
- acts on Leydig cells to stimulate the production of testosterone
posterior pituitary is also known as (2)
neurohypophysis

pars nervosa
cells bodies of myelinated axons of posterior pituitary are located in (2)
supraoptic nucleus (SON)

paraventricular nucleus (PVN)
neurosecretory granules are stored in
Herring bodies
vasopressin (ADH) is synthesized in the
supraoptic nucleus (SON)
oxytocin is synthesized in the
paraventricular nucleus (PVN)
functions of vasopressin (2)
promotes water reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts

elevates blood pressure by promoting contraction in the smooth muscle cells of peripheral arterioles
functions of oxytocin (2)
initiates the release of milk from the mammary gland by acting on myoepithelial cells that surround the alveoli (milk-ejection reflex)

enhances contraction of the smooth musculature of the uterus during childbirth and menstruation
unmyelinated axons of the posterior pituitary are surrounded by
pituicytes
colloid within thyroid follicles is composed of
thyroglobulin
____ stimulates follicular epithelial cells to degrade thyroglobulin into ____ and ____
TSH

triiodothyronine (T3)
thyroxin or tetraiodothyronine (T4)
functions of T3 and T4 (2)
regulate carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism

influence growth and maintain nervous system during development
parafollicular or "C" cells secrete
calcitonin
function of calcitonin
lowers blood calcium levels by:
- inhibiting osteoclasts
- stimulating calcium absorption
components of parathyroid gland (2)
chief or principal cells

oxyphil cells
chief or principal cells produce
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
function of PTH
monitors and controls calcium metabolism (increases blood Ca levels)
components of the adrenal gland (2)
adrenal cortex

adrenal medulla
layers of the adrenal cortex
zona glomerulosa

zona fasciculata

zona reticularis
zona glomerulosa synthesizes
mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
function of aldosterone
acts on distal convoluted tubules to increase sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion
zona fasciculata synthesizes
glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone)
function of cortisol and corticosterone
increase carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism
zona reticularis synthesizes
androgens (e.g., dehydroepiandrosterone)
adrenal medulla synthesizes and secretes
catecholamines (Epi-80% and NE-20%)
histological features of the adrenal cortex (3)
SER arranged in long tubes

mitochondria with tubular cristae

cells have many lipid droplets within their cytoplasm (storage sites of cholesterol esters)
histological features of the adrenal medulla (2)
catecholamines are able to reduce chromium salts (chromaffin reaction)

catecholamines are able to reduce silver salts (argentaffin reaction)