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47 Cards in this Set

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Insulin IND
Type 1, some Type II diabetics
Insulin Types:
Short Duration: RAPID ACTING
ex. insulin lispro/Humalog, insulin aspart/Novolog
Short Duration: SLOWER ACTING
ex. regular insulin/ Humalin R, Novolin R
Humalog/Novolog Decription
given 5-10 mins before eating or with meal-sq. Effects last 3-5 hrs, given at every meal, combined with intermediate acting for long-term control.
Humalin R, Novolin R Description
given 30 min before meal. Effects last 6-10 hours, combined w/ intermediate acting. Given sq, inhalation (exubra), infusion pump IV
Intermediate Acting Insulin Description/Function
ex. NPH
Used to control blood sugar btwn meals/during night. Injected 2x/daily, can be mixed w/ short duration insulins. Usually given at b-fast and dinner, duration 16-24 hrs.
Long acting Insulin Drug Name/Description
Lantus
given once a day at bedtime. Duration 24 hours. SQ only, can't be mixed.
Insulin dosing: Conventional schedule
2 injections, one at bfast and one at dinner. Both doses contain short-acting insulin & intermediate insulin. Mix in one syringe or used pre-mixed solution--> 70/30(70% NPH, 30% Regular Insulin)
Insulin dosing: Intensive conventional schedule ("brittle diabetes")
4 injections/day. Short-acting insulin before every meal and long acting at bedtime.
Insulin AE
hypoglycemia
lipodystrophy
Insulin DI
hypoglycemic agents (alcohol)
hyperglycemic agents
beta blockers
Insulin Nursing Considerations
T/L re: use of insulin, administration, storage
T/L re: check blood sugars, S&S of hypo/hyerglycemia
Oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) IND
Type II diabetics. Taken po
OHAs: Types
Sulfonylureas:
Orinase
Biguanide:
Metformin/Glucophage:
Giltazones:
Avandia
Orinase MOA
stimulates release of insulin, given before meals-->2x/day
Orinase AE
hypoglycemia
teratogenic
Orinase DI
alcohol
beta blockers
Glucophage MOA
lowers blood sugar by dec production of glucose by liver, suppresses gluconeogensis. Also inc glucose uptake by muscles.
Glucophage AE
GI
lactic acidosis
Glucophage DI
alcohol
Avandia: MOA
reduces insulin resistance by inc target cells response to insulin. Taken with glucophage and/or sulfonylurea.
Avandia: AE
well tolerated except does cause slight inc in fluid retention.
Avandia: DI
insulin
gemfibrozil/Lopid
Levothyroxine(T4) MOA:
synthetic prep of thyroxine--T4. Taken po once a day.
T4 IND:
all form of hypothyroidism
T4 AE
rare at therapeutic levels
toxic levels: extreme hyperthyroidism-- thyrotoxicosis
T4 DI
iron, calcium supplements
warfarin
dilantin, rifampin, phenobarbital
coumadin--incr effects of coumadin by blocking vitamin K dependent clotting factors
PTU MOA
inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis, inhibits an enzyme, perioxidase. Suppresses conversion of T4 to T3.
PTU IND
Graves disease
PTU AE
Hypothyroidism
agranulocytosis
Iodotope MOA
destroys thyroid tissue by emission of beta particles
Iodotope IND
Graves, alternative to surgery
Iodotope AE
hypothyroidsim
Somatropin MOA
form of GH. given SQ or IM
Somatropin IND
pediatric GH deficiency
pediatric non-GH deficient short stature
adults: wasting in AIDS px
Somatropin AE
hyperglycemia
Somatropin DI
glucocorticoids
Sandostatin MOA
mimics actions of somatostatin on pituitary and suppresses GH release
Sandostatin IND
acromegaly
Sandostatin AE
nausea, diarrhea, flatulence
Desmopressin MOA
structural analog of natural ADH. Promotes renal conservation of water. Administered po or by nasal spray.
Desmopressin AE
water intoxication
Hydrocortisone MOA
synthetic steroid similar to cortisol
Hydrocortisone IND
Addison's disease and all forms of adrenocortical insufficiency (po)
adrenal crisis given IV
Hydrocortisone AE
well-tolerated
Fludcortisone MOA
mineralcorticoid activity, used in combo w/ hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone IND
Addison's disease
hypoaldosteronism
Florinef AE
water and sodium retention-->HTN
hpokalemia