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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
GH and prolactin are secreted by the _____ pituitary and are (acidophilic/basophilic).
anterior; acidophilic
ACTH, FSH, LH and TSH are secreted by the _____ pituitary and are (acidophilic/basophilic).
anterior, basophilic
ACTH is a ________troph, TSH is a ______troph, and FSH and LH are ____trophs.
acth corticotroph, tsh thyrotroph, fsh and lh gonadotroph
ADH and oxytosin are released from the ______ and produced in the ________.
posterior pituitary; hypothalamus
Hyperpituitarism is usually caused by an ______ of the ______ lobe of the pituitary
adenoma; anterior
Adenomas of the pituitary produce an excess of multiple hormones secreted by that part of the pituitary
false (amost true), usually produces excess of one type of hormone
Pituitary adenomas are present in ___% of autopsied people.
25%
_________ is the most common hyperfunctioning pituitary andenoma causing amenorrhea, loss of libido, infertility and glactorrhea.
Prolactinoma
GH adenoma before poohberty causes ______; after pooberty ______.
before gigantism; after acromegaly
Cushings disease is condidered a _____ adenoma causing an increased production of _____.
corticotroph, glucocorticoids (as happens in hyperproduction of ACTH)
Pituitary _______ include prolactinoma, GH (somatotroph) and corticotroph adenomas as well as null-cell, gonadotroph, thyrotroph and mixed adenomas. These are all forms of hyper-hypo-pituitarism?
adenomas, hyper**
_________ syndrome is a partial pituitary hypofunction caused by herniation of arachnoid matter into the sella usually due to a membrane defect. It is usually seen in obese women with _________ pregnancies.
Empty sella syndrome, multiple
Anterior pitutitary hypofunction due to postpartum ischemic necrosis-
Sheehan's Syndrome
_______ resembles an ameloblastoma derived from remnant ectodermal tissue of ______ pouch causing a slow growing neoplasm.
Craniopharyngioma, Rathke's
Most frequesnt cause of hypopituitarism is ________.
non-secretory pituitary adenomas
An abrupt enlargement of a pituitary adenoma due to acute hemorrhage within the tumor is calld a ______.
pituitary apoplexy
No signifiact clinical abnormalities are shon due to abnormal amounts of which hormone? (hint: posterior pituitary)
oxytocin
ADH oversecretion is most often due to
ADH producing tumor such (eg. oat cel carcinoma of the lung)
Over secreation of ADH causes __________ a syndrome that results in renal retention of water with an inablilty to diulte causing hyponatremia (low Na+)
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
Destruction of the posterior pituitary leads to ADH undersecretion causing _______.
diabetes insipidus
The thyroid gland stores _________ which is converted to T3 and T4 under the influence of TSH. Parafollicular (C-cells) synthesize and secrete _______.
thyroglobulin, calcitonin (inc. Ca+ absorption)
Warm skin, sweating, heat intolerance, hypermotility of GI tract, increased apetite, osteoporisis, iritabitly, tachycardia, arrhythmias, exopthalmos, fine oily hair and muscle weakness are symptoms of ________.
hyperthyroidism
The most common causes of hyperthyroidism include: Graves disease, excess ingested TSH, goiters and _______.
adenomas
A patient suddenly manifests high fever, tachycardiam arrhythmias and hypertension due to hyperthyroidism. The patient is suffering from a ________.
thyroid storm
what should you do in a thyroid storm (sudden attack of hyperthyroidism)
stop dental proceedure, give O2, take vitals, give nitroglycerin and call 911
Which is not a form of Hypothyroidism: Hashimotos, cretinism, myxedema, Grave's disease.
Graves = hyper
Cells of the thyroid are ineffiecient in converting iodine to thyroid hormone causing enlargement. Thyroid tissue is then replaced by lymphocytes causing inflamation and primary hypothyroidism in this disease.
hashimotos thyroditis
______thyroidism in infancy due to dietary iodine deficiency causes wide set eyes, coarse facial features, protruding tongue and umbilicus and severe mental retardation (think eric) are manifestations of ________.
hypo-, cretinism
______ is a kind of an version of cretinsm (lethargy,mental slowness, cold intolerance, broad face, tongue enlargement, coarse dry hair)
myxedema
Cretinism occurs in ______ while myxedema in _______. Both are forms of ____thyroidism.
infants, late childhood-adult, hypo
______ is the most common cause of primary (endogenous) hyperthyroidism.
graves disease
Graves disease is manifested in 3 ways: pretibial myxedema (thickening of the skin over legs and dorsal foot), bulging eyes (exopthamos), and ________.
thyroxicosis (hyperthyroidism)
Graves disease is (hyper/hypo)secretion of what hormone and is most common in which gender
hyperthyroidism, female 7:1
HLA-DRS is to _____ as HLA DR3 is to _____
non-specific lyphoid thyroiditis ; graves disease
Either sporadic or endemic hyperplasia of the thyroid is referred to as a ______ goiter.
Diffuse non-toxic goiter
The most common cause of hypthyroidism in usa is?
hashimotos thyroditis
Types of thyroiditis include non-specific, hashimoto's, subacute granulomatous and ______.
Reidel's
Non-specific lymphoid thyroiditis is commonly found in (males/females) and shows mild gland enlargement with no ________ centers.
germinal
What autoimmune disease increases the risk of b-cell lymphoma, is more commonly found in females and is characterized histologically by Hurthle cells?
hashimotos thyroditis
Auto antibodies associated with Hashimotos include: anti- thyroid, thyroglobulin, TSH and iodine _________.
receptors
T/F de Quervain's thyroiditis is synonymous with subacute (granulomatous) thyroiditis, causing acute onset granulomatous inflamation.
TRUE
Fibrous tissue replaces normal thyroid tissue in ________ thyroiditis.
Reidel's
Thyroid neoplasms are usually benign? T/F
TRUE
Benign thyroid adenomas cause papillary change. T/F
false
Of the four main subtypes of thyroid carcinomas, papilary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic, which is most common?
Papilary 75-80%
Papilary projections containing ground glass, clear "orphan annie" nuclei are seen in _______ which typically has a good prognosis even when adjacent lymph nodes are invloved.
papillary carcinoma
Prognosis for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is ______, anaplastic (undifferentiated) carcinoma of thyroid is _____.
good, poor
Medulary carcinoma arises from ________ cells causing secretion of calcitonin. It normally presents as a neck mass in 50-60 years of age and can be associated with
parafolicular (C-cells), MEN syndrome Iia and IIb (III)
Uniform folicles invading surrounding tissue and "cold" nodules are characterisitc of _______.
follicular carcinoma of the thyroid
T/F The parathyroid is stimulated hormonally?
False - [Ca+] decrease --> stimulates osteoclasts, increased renal asn GI absorption Ca+, inc vit D synthesis
Primary hyperparathyroidism is most often caused by ____ or _____ of the glands.
adenoma, hyperplasia
Stones groans moans and bones refers to what disorder
primary hyperparathyroidism
Increased serum phosphorus and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase occur in hyperparathyroidism. T/F
False - other way around
The most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism is ________.
renal failure
Hypoparathyroidism is less common and usually caused iatrogenically, or in rare instances by DiGeorge's syndrome and is accompanied by two signs _______ and ______.
Chvostek's (unilateral spasm in face by tapping on facial nerve), Trouseau's (hand/arm in tetany position similar to nerve compression)
The adrennal cortex secretes __________, _________, and ________
glucocorticoids (cortisol), Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone), androgens
Which is not a form of adrenal hyperfuction: Cushing's, Hyperaldosteronism (Conn's), Virilism, Addison's
Addison's is hypo
Cushings disease is an increased production of _____, that cuases adrenal (atrophy/hypertrophy)
glucocorticoids, atrophy or hypertrophy (****depending on whether it is caused by exogenous corticosteroids being administered (atrophy) or an adrenal or ectopic tumor producing ACTH (hyperplasia))
Which is not a symptom of Cushing's: moon face, buffalo hump, weight gain, extremity muscle wasting, stretch marks, osteoporosis, menstrual abnormalities, hirsutism, mental disturbances, hypertension, glycosuria, increased ACTH.
increased ACTH, Cushing's = dec. ACTH (hypo)
The most common form of Cushing's is caused by _________.
exogenous steroid medications
cushing's syndrome can be caused by adrenal tumor producing cortisol. This causes nodular hyperplasia.
true; true
Hyperaldosteronism causes Na+ retention, K+ excretion and hypertension. T/F
TRUE
An example of _____ hyperaldosteronism is Conn's syndrome which is due to _______ serum renin caused by negative feed back of hypertension.
primary, decreased
secondary aldosteronism is due to renal ischemia, edema or nephroticsyndrome and exhibits _______ serum renin.
increased *** opposite of primary
Adrenal virulism is caused by ____ defects or a ____ of the adrenal cortex producing virulism in females and precocious pubecent males.
enzymatic, tumor (virulism = hyper-aldosteronism)
Adrenal hypofunction (hypocorticism) is characterized by a ____ of glucocorticoids and often mineralcorticoids.
deficiency
Which is not a symptom of Addison's disease: somnolence, cardiac problems, hyperpigmentation, adrenal hypertrophy, weight loss, amenorrhea, loss of pubes (hotcoles still dosen't have any) and muscle weakness.
Hypertrophy is wrong. Addison's = hypocorticism = atrophy of adrenals
Tb was once the most common cause of Addison's but now it is due to _________ adrenal atrophy.
idiopathic/autoimmune
Which two diseases are asssociated with adrenal hypofuncion
addisions' and waterhous-friderichsen disease
Waterhous-friderichsen disease is caused by a _____ collapse often associated with ___.
vascular, DIC (sepsis from meningococcal meningitis)
The rule of tens applies to ___________ which is overproduction of epinephrine, norepinephrine and VMA that causes hypertension.
pheochromocytoma (rule = 10% bilateral, 10% children, 10% malignant)
Pheochromocytoma can be corrected surgically. T/F
TRUE
________ is a highly malignant catacholamine-producing tumor of early childhood (0-3 yrs) presenting as an ________ mass causing hypertension.
neuroblastoma, abdominal
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are autosomal ______ in which one or more endocrine organs is ________.
dominant, hyperfunctional
MEN 1 is commonly called _____, linked to chromosome ___ , which causes tumors of the 3 p's: pituitary, _______ and pancrease.
Wermer syndrome, 11, pancrease (not penis you perv)
More than one of the following are involved: pituitary, parathyroid, pancreatic islets, adrenal cortex
MEN I (wermer syndrome)
Sipple syndrome is also called ____. Nearly all have medullary carcinoma of the ______ which is usually multifocal and aggressive.
MEN II, thyroid
MEN II (Sipple) is linked to chromosome 10 and causes ____ of the parathyroid (hyperparathyroidism).
hyperplasia
MEN Iib (MEN III) is simliar to MEN ___, but does not cuase hyperparathyroiditis. It is linked to mutations of the ret proto-oncogene and include pheocytochroma, medullary carcinoma and _______.
Iia (Sipple), oral mucosal neuromas