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62 Cards in this Set

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Growth Hormone
-From Anterior Pituitary
-Somatotropin
-targets most body tissues
-regulates growth of bone, muscle, etc
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
-From Anterior Pituitary
-Adrenotropin
-Targets Adrenal Glands
-Stimulates growth and secretion of the adrenal cortex
Prolactin
-From Anterior Pituitary
-Lactogenic Hormone
-targets mammary glands
-stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk after childbirth
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
-From Anterior Pituitary
-Follitropin
-Targets gonads
-stimulates the secretion of estrogen and growth of follicles in females
-initiates testosterone production in males
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
-From Anterior Pituitary
-Thyrotropin
-Targets thyroid gland
-stimulates growth of the thyroid and secretion of thyroid hormones
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
-From Anterior Pituitary
-Melanotropin
-Targets melanocytes
-stimulates melanocytes to secrete and deposit melanin
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
-From Posterior Pituitary
-Targets kidneys
-increases the reabsorption of water in the nephrons
-decreases urine volume
Oxytocin
-From Posterior Pituitary
-targets uterus and mammary glands
-stimulates the contractions of the uterus during childbirth
-Stimulates the release of milk from the breast
Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine
-from the thyroid
-target most of the body
-increase metabolic rate
-controlled by TSH
Calcitonin
-from the thyroid
-targets bone
-decreases blood calcium by inhibiting bone breakdown
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
-from the parathyroids
-target bone, kidney, digestive tract
-promote breakdown of bone to increase blood calcium
-promote retention and absorption of calcium in kidneys and digestive tract
Mineralcorticoids
-from the adrenal cortex
-regulate mineral salts in the body
Aldosterone
-from the adrenal cortex
-increase sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules
Glucocorticoids
-from the adrenal cortex
-regulate metabolism, influence blood pressure, anti-inflammatory effect
Gonadocorticoids
-from the adrenal cortex
-androgens
-influence sex-related characteristics
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
-from the adrenal medulla
-stimulate the sympathetic nervous system
Glucagon
-from the pancreas
-target the liver
-increases the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in order to increase blood glucose levels
Insulin
-from the pancreas
-target the liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue
-facilitates uptake of glucose by the cells and adipose tissue, and the creation of glycogen
Thymosin
-from the thymus
-stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes to T lymphocytes
Melatonin
-from the pineal gland
-influences the sleep-wake cycle
Testosterone
-from the testes
-stimulates development of male sexual characteristics
Estrogen
-from the ovaries
-development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics and regulation of the menstrual cycle
-promotes maturation of the ovum
Progesterone
-from the ovary (corpus luteum)
-completes preparation of uterus for possible pregnancy
Homeostasis
Maintenance of the internal environment within tolerable limits
Hormones
-chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands
-can be protein or steroid based
Endocrinologist
Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands
Endocrinopathy
any disease or disorder due to a malfunctioning endocrine gland
Hypercrinism
condition caused by excessive secretion of a hormone by a gland
Hypocrinism
condition caused by deficient secretion of a hormone by a gland
Pituitary Gland
-AKA hypophysis
-located at base of brain below the hypothalamus
-secretes hormones that control the function of the other glands
-Acts in response to stimuli from the hypothalamus
Adenohypophysis
-Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
-secretes Growth Hormone (GH), ACTH, Prolactin, FSH, LH (ICSH), TSH, MSH
Neurohypophysis
-Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
-resevoir for chemicals created by the hypothalamus
-secretes oxytocin and ADH
Pituitarism
Any disorder of the pituitary
Acromegaly
enlargement of the extremeties caused by hypersecretion of GH after puberty
Gigantism
abnormal overgrowth of the body caused by hypersecretion of GH before puberty
Diabetes Insipidus
-caused by insufficient production of ADH or failure of the kidneys to respond
-allows too much fluid to be excreted
-symptoms: polydipsia, polyuria
Hypothyroidism
-deficiency of thyroid secretion
-symptoms: fatigue, depression, sensitivity to cold, decreased metabolism
Cretinism
congential hypothyroidism which can cause arrested physical and mental development
Myxedema
-severe adult hypothyriodism
-Symptoms: enlarged tongue, puffiness of hands and feet
Hyperthyroidism
-excessive thyroid secretion
-symptoms: increased metabolism and appetite, sweating, nervousness, weight loss, increased heart rate
Thyrotoxicosis
-AKA Thyroid Storm
-syndrome caused by severely excessive thyroid secretion
Graves' Disease
-autoimmune
-characterized by goiter and exophthalmos
Goiter
enlarged thyroid gland
Exophthalmos
protruding eyes
-often due to Graves' disease
Lobectomy
Removal of a lobe of an organ (Ex thyroid)
Hyperparathyroidism
-excessive secretion of the parathyroid gland
-symptoms: hypercalcemia (high blood calcium)
Hypoparathyroidism
-insufficient or absent secretion of the parathyroid gland
-symptoms: hypocalcemia (low blood calcium), tetany
Corticosteroids
Steroid hormones produced by the
Adrenalitis
Inflammation of the adrenal gland
Addison's Disease
-deficiency of cortisol and aldosterone
-symptoms:
Aldosteronism
-Caused by hypersecretion of aldosterone
-symptoms: abnormality of electrolyte balance
Cushing's Syndrome
-caused by prolonged exposure to excessive cortisol due to overproduction or taking glucocorticoid medication
-symptoms include: "moon" face
Hyperglycemia
-abnormally high levels of sugar in the blood
-symptoms: polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria
Hypoglycemia
-abnormally low blood sugar
Diabetes Mellitus
-due to insufficient insulin or insulin-resistance
-symptoms: polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, slow healing, etc
Type 1 Diabetes
Juvenile onset
-due to lack of insulin
Type II Diabetes
Adult onset
-due to insulin resistance
Gestational Diabetes
Diabetes that occurs during pregnancy
Ketoacidosis
-occurs when blood sugar is high and the body uses other sources of fuel
-causes blood acidity
Gynecomastia
-excessive mammary development in males
Neuropathy
damage to nerves often due to diabetes
Diabetic retinopathy
damage to the blood vessels of the eye that can lead to blindness