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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
zona glomerulosa
aldosterone
zona fasciculata
cortisol, sex hormones
zona reticularis
sex hormones
adrenal medulla (chromaffin cells)
catecholamines
pheochromocytoma
most common tumor of adrenal medulla in adults
episodic HTN
neuoblastoma
most common in children
posterior pit (from neuroectoderm)
vasopressin and oxytocin (both made in HT)
ant pit (from oral ectoderm, Rathke's pouch)
FSH, LH, ACTH, GH, TSH, MSH, prolactin
beta subunit
determines hormone specificity
alpha cells of islets
glucagon
beta cells of islets
insulin
delta cells of islets
somatostatin
prolactin inhibited by
dopamine (bromocriptine)
what stimulates prolactin
dopamine antagonists (most antipsychotics)
prolactin inhibits
GnRH synthesis and release- inhibits ovulation
increased prl causes...
infertility, amenorrhea, galactorrhea
males: decreased testo, libido, sperm (infertility), impotence, gynecomastia, galactorrhea
causes of increased prl
pregnancy, breast feeding, stress, prolactinoma, DA antagonists (haloperidol, domperidone, metacloprimide), methyldopa
somatostatin inhibits
GH and TSH
stimulates bone and muscle growth
GH (IGF)
stimulats milk production and secretion
prl
stimulates milk secretion during lactation
oxytocin
responsible for female secondary sex characteristics
estrogen
stimulates metabolich activty
thyroid hormone
increases blood glucose level and decreases protein synthesis
cortisol
responsible for male secondary sex characteristics
testosterone
prepares endomitrium for implantation/maintenance of preg
progesterone
stimulates adrenal cotex to synthesize and secrete cortisol
ACTH
stimulates follicle maturation in females and spermatogenesis in males
FSH
increases plasma Ca, increases bone resoprtion
PTH
decreases plasma ca, increase bone formation
calcitonin
stimulates ovulation in females, testosterone synthesis in males
LH
stimulates thyroid to produce TH and uptake iodine
TSH
progesterone is from
ovary, placenta
atrial natriuretic hormone is from
atria
testosterone is from
testis, ovaries, ZR of adrenal cortex
calcitonin is from
parafollicular C cells of thyroid
estradiol is from
ovaries
estriol is from
placenta
estrone is from
adipose
estrogen in males is from
testes
cAMP (Gs)
ACTH, LH/FSH/hCG/TSH, ADH (V2, kidney), glucagon, MSH, CRH, calcitonin/PTH, beta
IP3/DAG (Gq)
GnRH, TRH, GHRH, ATII, ADH (V1 vessels), oxytocin, A1, M1, M3
nucleus
glucocorticoids, estrogen/progesterone, testosterone, aldosterone, vit D, thyroid H
tyrosine kinase
insulin, IGF-1, growth factors (PDGF)
insulin dependent organs
skeletal muscle and adipose via GLUT4
glucose independent
brain and RBCs
pit adenoma
most commonly prolactinoma - amenorrhea, galactorrhea, low libido, infertility
tx with bromocriptine
SIADH
excessive water retention, hyponatremia, urine osm > serum osm
low Na can lead to seizures (correct slowly!)
tx: demeclocycline, H2O restriction
causes of SIADH
ectopic ADH (small cell lung cancer)
CNS disorders/head trauma
pulm disease
drugs (cyclophosphamide)
carcinoid syndrome
secrete high levels of 5HT
results in diarrhea, cutaneous flushing, asthmatic wheezing, right sided vavlular disease
increased 5HIAA in urine
tx: octreotide
Zollinger Ellison syndrome
gastrin secreting tumor of pancreas or duodenum
causes recurrent ulcers
may be associated with MEN 1
Sheehans
postpartum hypopituitism
caused by infarction of pituitary gland following severe bleeding and hypoperfusion during delivery
may cause fatigue, anorexia, poor pactation, loss of hair
neuroblastoma
most common tumor of adrenal medulla in children
HVA in urine
pheochromocytoma
most common tumor of AM in adults
derived from chromaffin cells (NCC), VMA in urine
assoc with NF, MEN II/III
tx with alpha ag (phenoxybenzamine)
episodic: HTN, pain, perspiration, tachy, palpitations, pallor
MEN I
pancreas, parathyroid and pit tumors; presents with kidney stones and stomach ulcers
MEN II
medullary carc of thyroid, pheochromocytoma, parathyroid tumor
MEN III
medullary carc of thyroid, pheochromocytoma, mucosal neuromas
ret gene
MEN II and III
MEN
AD inheritance
cretinism
lack of dietary iodine, sporadic caused by defect in T4 formation or developmental failure in thyroid formation
pot bellied, pale, puffy face with protruding umbilicus, protuberant tongue
acromegaly
excess GH in adults
large tongue with deep furrows, deep voice, large hands and feet, coarse facial features, impaired glucose tolerance (insulin resistance), increased GH in children- gigantism
tx: octreotide