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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
exocrine glands
release enzymes to the external environbment through ducts, inclyde swear, oil, mucuous and digestive
endocrine glands
release hormones directly into the body fluids (e.g., pancreas is both exocrine by releasing digestive juice, and endocrine releaseing insulin)
endocrine system effts
slower, less direct, longer lasting than the neroous system, may take seconds to days, released into general circulation; bind ot protins called receptors. Each receptor is highly specific for its hormone
effcts of endocrine system
to alter metabolic activities, regulate growth, development and guide reproductio9n, works with nervous system, as some glands are stimulated by neuron to secrete their hormones
3 basic types of hormones
peptide, steroid and tyrosine hormones
peptide hormones
from peptide, large or small, often inclide carbohydrate portion; all manufactured in ER
cleaving a hormone (e.g., cleasing preprohormone)
becomes prohormone, and sent to golgi, cleasved agained and maybe modified, then sent out for excocytosis
peptide hormones
water solulle, move freely though the blood, but its difficult to move through the cell membrane of the effector
effector is target cell of hormone
the cell that the hormone is meant to affect
peptide hormones
water soluble, and move freely through blood, but difficult to diffuse through membran of effector. They attach to receptor and the receptor then acts like a an ion channel (increasing permeability to specific ion), or receptor may activate or deactiviate other intrinsic memrane protains. Attached hormone could also promote intracellular second messenger like cAMP, gAMP or calmodulin.
second messenger
activates or deactivates enzymes and or inon channels and often creates a cascade of chemcial reactions that can amplify the eggects of the hormone
anterior pituitary hormones
FSH, LH, ACTH, hGH, TSH, prolactin
potserior pituitary hormones
ADH and oxytocin
parathyroid hormone
pancreatic hormones
glucogon and insulin
sterid hormones
come from adrenal cortex, goads, or placenta; derived from or similar to cholesterol; synthesized in the mitochondria and smooth ER; lipid soluble and enters cell to bind with receptor in cytosol; enters nucleus and is involvedat transcription level; so typical effect of steroid hormone is to increase certain membranme or cellular proteins within the effector
thyroids hormones and catecholamines (adrenal medulla)
tyrosine derivatives include
thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and cetecholamines from arenal medulla (norepinephrine and epinephrine) all formed by enzymes in cytosol or on rough ER
thyroid hormones
bnd to receports in nucleus, increase transcription of large nunber of genes in nearly all cells fo the body
act on receptors at the membrnae, water soluble, dissolve in blood; act with the second messenger cAMP
negative deedback in endocrine glands
control point of feedback is is the conduct of the effector, not the concentration of the hormone. E.g., high insulin levels caused by high blood glucose, and low glucose would cause high blood glucagon levels
endocrine glands secrete only ONE of 3
tyrosine, peptide or steroid hormones (with eception of thryoid)
controls the release of anterior and pituitary hromones with releasing and hihibitory hormones of its own
anterior pituitary
located in the brain beneath the hypothalamus
anterior pituitary releases 6 major hormones and several minor hormones
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F: Follicle Stimulating Hormone
L: Luteinizing Hormone
G: Growth Hormone
T: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
O: MSH - melanOcyte stimulating hormone
P: Prolactin
human growth hormone (hGH)
peptide that stimulates growth in almost all cells by increasing episodes of mitosis, increasing cell size, increasing the rate of protein syntehsis, mbilizing fat stores, increasing the use of fatty acids for energy, decreasing the use of glucose. amino acid transport across cell membrane, translation and transcription and dreasing breakdown of proteins and amino acids (to accomplish this)
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
peptide, stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocotricoids via 2nd messenger system using cAMP. ACTH release is stimulated by stress. Glucocorticoid is a stress hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
peptide, stimulates the thyroid to release T3 and T4 via 2nd messenger using cAMP; TSH increases thryoid cell size, number and rate of secretion for T3 and T4. T3 and T4 concentrations have negative feedback on TSH relases
peptide, promotes lactaion by breasts (progesterone and estrogen inhibit it before birth); act of suckling stimulates hypothalamus to stimulate anterior pituitary to release prolactin; inhibits menstrual cycle
posterior pituitary
oxytocin and ADH released into blood from post. pit
small peptide hormone that increases uterine contractions during pregnancy and causes milk ejections from breast (different from that of prolactin)
antidiuretic hormone (AHD) or vassopression
small peptide hormone which causes the collecting ducts of kidney to be permeable to water, which reduces urine and making it more concentrated (coffee and beer are ADH blockers)
adrenal cortex
located on top of the kidneys, seperated into adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex
outside portion of the gland, secretes steroid hormones only: minerla corticoids and glucocorticoids
mineral corticoids
effect electorlyte balance have effect of fat and protein metabolism
major mineral corticoid; acts in the distal convoluted tubule and cellecting duct to release Na and CL reabsorptoin and K and H secretion. results in increase in blood pressure. for MCAT: main effect of aldosterone is Na reabsorption and K secretion in the collecting tubule of the kidney. increase in blood pressure is a secondary effect
steriod, glucocorticoid from adrenal cortex that increases blood glucose levels by stimulating glucogenesis in the liver; also converts adipose tissue to fatty acid for cell respiration
stress hormone that may be antiinflammatory, but also diminishs the immune system
tyrosine derivaties in the adrenal medulla; epinephrine and norepinephrine (same thing as adrenaline); their effects on target tissues are similar to their effects on Symp NS but are longer asting. ; they are vasoconstrictors for organs and skin but vasodilator s for skeletal muscle consistent with fight o flight, also considered stress hormones
Thyroid hormones
include T3(triiodothyronone) and T4 (thyroxine)and calcitonin; thyroid is located along the trachea just in fron of the larnyx
T3 and T4
very similar in effect, no distinction will be made on MCAT (unless explicit in passage); T3 has 3 I atoms, T4 has 4. Both are lipid soluble tyrosine derivatives that diffuse through the lipid bilayer and act in nucleus of their effector. General effect: to increase basal metabolic rate (resting met rate).
large peptide hormone released by thyroid gland; slighly decreases blood calcium decreasing osteoclast activity and number. calcium levels can be effectively controlle din humans in absence of calcitonin (not necessary)
pancreas (islets of langerhands)
acts as both endocrine and exocrine gland; 2 hormones released are: insulina nd glucagon (somatostatic inhibits both insulin and glucagon). role somatostatin is to extend period of time over which nutrients are absorbed,
peptide hormone released by the beta cells of the pancreas. associated with energy abundance in form of high energy nutrients in the blood. insulin is released when the blood levels of carbs and proteins are high, affects their metabolism. in presence of insulin, carbs stored as glycogen in liver and nuscle, fats as adopse tissue and amino acids taken up by cell to make proteins
net effect of insulin
lower blood glucose level
binds to membrane to intitate cascade reactions in the cell, cells of the body are then highly peremable to glucose upon binding of insulin (except neurons); amino acid permeability is also increased, intracellular metabolic enzymes are activated and even translated and transcrtiption rates are affected.
peptide hormone released by alpha cells of the pancreas, opposite of imsulin. glucagon stimulates glycogensis in liver (breakdown of glycogen) and glucaoneogensis. Acts via 2nd messenger system of cAMP. glucagon breaks down adopose increasing factty acid level in blood
parathyroid glands release PTH
release pararthyroid hormone (PTH); a peptide hormone which increases blood calcium, increases osteoce absorption of Ca and P from the boen and stimulates proliferation of steoclasts. also increases renal Ca reabsorption and renal P excretion. PTH secertion is regulated by Ca ion plasma concentration and parathyroid shrinks or growns accordingly.
most reproductive hormones other than FSH, LH, HCG, and inhibin are
steroids released from testes, ovaries, or placenta
seminiferous tubules
sperm production
located in seminiferous tubules arise from epitheulal tissue to be spearmtocytes, spermatids, spermatzoat.
sertoli cells stimulated by ___ srround and nurture these little spermies
leydig cells releases ____ and are stimulated by _____
testosteron, LH
male sex hormones, testosterone is main one
androgen responsible for seconary sex characteristcs
sperm with head, midpc , and tail; head has nuclear material and acrosome, some of lysosome like enzymes for egg penetration
sperm carried to epidydmis
to mature
sperm travels from
vas deferens into urethra, and out of penis.
semen is fluid from
seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourtehtral glands
beigns in ovaries of fetus, all eggs are arrested as ooctyes at birth, at puberty FSH stimulates granulosa cells around the primary oocyte.
zona pellucida
viscous substance that the granulosa cells secrete around the egg
theca cells differentiate and forms
secondary follicale
theca cells stimulated by LH
secrete androgen converted to estradiol in presecne fo FSH and secreted int blood
bursting of follicle
luteal surge
LH secretion increase before ovulation, via positive feedback of rising estrogen which increases LH levels, which increases estrogen; this surge causes the follicle to burst, releasing the egg into the body.
fallopian tube or voiduct
fimbraie sweep the egg down the fallopian tube. The remaining portion is called corpus luteum and seceretes estradiol and pregoesterone during pregnancy. If no pregnancy, then corpus albicans is the degraded protion
3 phases of menstrual cycle
follicular phase, luteual phase. flow
follicular phase
begins with developent of follicle and ends with ovulation
luteal phase
beigns with ovulation and ends with degeneration of the corupus luteum into the corpus albicans
shedding of uterine lining and lasts 5 days
fertilization takes place in:
fallopian tube (normally)
once the sperm and egg fuse, the oocyte goes through the 2nd meiosis division to be
ovum and releases a 2nd polar body
fertilization occurs when:
ovum and sperm fuse to form zymgote
zygote in fallopian tube
goes through many mitotic cycles, when it has 8 or more cells, its claled a morula.
zygote with 8 or more cells, totipotent (able to express any gene) Any of these 8 cells could form an individula
morula keeps dividng for 4 days forming
fluid filled ball called blastocyst, blastocyst lodges in uterus during implantation (5 or 7 th days after ovulation. blastocyst is made of stem cells
human chorinoic gonadotropin (HCG)
peptide hormone released by the egg that prevents degerneation of the corpus luteum upon implementation
HCG in urine or blood of mother
placenta is formed from
the tissue of the egg and mother and takes over hormone secretion job
process by which cell is specialized; occurs early on
specialization that occurs at the end of development forming a tissue; differentiation occurs later on
fromed in the 2nd week after fertizliation via gastrulation, where cells start to move aout in the embryo, 3 primary germ layers formed furing gastrulation
gastrulation germ layers formed
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
outer coverings of body, skin, nails, tooth enamel, and into cells of the nervous system and sens organs
lining of digestive tract into liver and pancreas
lies between inner and outer covering of body, muscle, bone and rest
3rd weekneuroula forms
via neurulation, the notochord (made from mesoderm) induces the overlying ectoderm to thicken and form the neural plate. notochord degenerates and neural tube forms from neural plate
induction occurs
when one cell type affests the direction of differentiation of antoehr cell type
essentation for development of the nervous system, operation of the immune system and descrtuction of the tissue between fingers and toes. ; basically regulated by protein activity as opposed to regulation at the transcription or translation level. proteins involved are present but inactive in a normal healthy cell. In mammal, mitochondria plays an important role in apoptosis
steroid hormone produced by adrenal cortex
increased secretion of esterogen during menstrual cycle sets off lutea surve
which involves secretion of LH and leads to ovulation