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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where are the receptors for polypeptides and amines?
on cell surface
Where are the receptors for steriods? On what do that act?
in cytoplasm, act on nucleus--bind to DNA
What is another name for the post. pituitary? What does the post. pit. contain?
neurohypophysis it contains granules of stored hormones
The ant. pit. is derived from the ___ ____.
oral canal
The post. pit is derived from the ______?
floor of the 3rd ventricle
What is the pit. stalk? where is it?
between the hypothalamus and the post. pit. It contains neural connections
What arethe 7 hormones produced by the ant. pit.?
1- TSH
2- FSH
4- GH
Describe the vision defect with a pit. tumor?
loss of bilateral upper temporal quadrants of the visual field
What is the most likely cause of excess hormone production by the ant. pit?
Name 5 characteristics involved somatotroph tumors? What hormone is in excess?
1- acromegaly
4- HTN
5- glucose intolerance
Do gonadotrophs present with any clinical symptoms?
no, just elvated FSH and LH
What is the most common hyperfunctioning tumor of the pit?
An excess of adrenal cortical steriods is ____?
Cushings DIsease
A loss of 75% of the pit. parenchyma is _____?
Name 3 causes of hypopituitarism.
1- ablation
2- non-secretory adenoma
3- sheehans's syndrome
What is Sheehan's syndrome?
post-partum necrosis of the pit. ( it grew due to pregnancy--the blood supply could not keep up)
What is empty sella syndrome an example of?
What is diabetes insipidus?
Lack of ADH, you pee alot, have high serum osmolality and Na
What type of cells comprise the post. pit?
glial cells and axonal processes
What 2 nuclei extend down into the post. pit.?
2- supraoptic nucleus
The paraventricular nucleus secretes _____ and is resonsible for ___ and ____.

uterine contraction and milk ejection
The suproptic nucleus secretes _____ and acts of ____.
ADH, renal tubules
Describe SIADH. What is the most common cause?
continued release of ADH without regard to serum osmolality., ectopic production from tumors
Which hormones are secreted by the thyroid?
T3, T4 and calcitonin
The hypermetabolic state caused by elevated T3 and T4 is ___?
What are 4 causes of hyperthyroidism.
1- graves disease
2- exogenous thyroid hormone
3- hyperfunction goiter
4- hyperfunction adenoma
What are 8 clinical manifestations of Graves?
1- weight loss
2- tachycardia
3- arrhythmias
4- diarrhea
5- weakness
6- tremor
7- nervousmess
8- heat intolerance
Is thyroid storm a medical emergency? why?
yes, acute.....tachycardia
What are the lab findings for hyperthyroidism?
decreased TSH, elevated T4
What is the mechanism of Graves?
autoAb that stimulates the TSH receptor
What are 5 causes of hypopituitarism?
1- autoimmune
2- surgery
3-iodine/enzyme deficiency
4- idiopatic
5- hypopituitarism (secondary)
What are 2 outcomes associ. with hypothyroidism? Which one goes with what age?
Adults- myxedema
Infants- cretinism
What are the lab results of hypothyroidism?
increased TSH but decreased T4
What is a dominant characteristic of hypothyroidism?
big, puffy tongue
Inflammation of the thyroid is ___.
Name 5 types of thyroiditis.
1- suppurative (infectious)
2- nonspecific lymphocytic
3- subacute granulomatous
4- Hashimotos
5- Riedels (fibrosis)
Hashimotos is an _____ disease, and is characterized by an ____ that ____ and _____ the TSH receptor.
autoimmune disease, Ab, binds and inhibits
What is the most common form of thyroiditis in the US?
In Hashimoto's, the the goiter painful?
Histologically, what would you see in Hashimotos?
increased lmyphocytes and plasma cell infiltrates,
Germinal centers, and Hurthle Cells (eosinophillic epithelial cells)
Decribe a benign thyroid follicular adenoma.
1- encapsulated, normal looking
2-painless cold nodule
3- solitary
4- difficulty swallowing
Name the 4 types of malignant thyroid tumors.
1- papillary
2- follicular
3- medullary
What is the most common malignant thyroid tumor? what is the survival rate?
papillary, 10 yr = 80%
What are 3 histo characteristics of papillary carcinomas?
1- papillary folds
2- orphan annie eyes
3- psammoma bodies (calcified)
Do papillary tumors go to the nodes? do follicular carcinomas?
yes, no (b/c they are more aggressive)
Are follicular tumors solitary and cold?
What is a medullary carcinoma?
neuroendocrine tumor of the C-cells
What are 3 signs of a medullary tumor?
neck mass, dysphagia, hoarseness
What are 4 pathological manifestatons of a medullary carcinoma?
1- polygonal to spindle-shaped cell
2- nests, trabeculae
3- amyloid
4- C-cell hyperplasia
Describe anaplastic tumors?
Rapidly fatal neck mass
occurs with goiter sometimes
What are the 3 morphological patterns of anaplastic carcinomas?
1-pleiomorphic giant cells
2- sarcomatous spindle cells
3- squamoid cells
What do the parathyroid glands secrete, what governs their secretion?
PTH, serum Ca levels
What are 3 places of action of PTH?
1- bone
2- kidney
3- intestines
What are the clinical features of hyperparathyroidism?
painful bones, kidney stones, abdominal groans, and pychic moans
What is the skeletal disorder in hyperparathyroidism?
osteitis fibrosa cystica
What are the 2 kidney disorders of hyperparathyroidism?
WHat GI problems do you have in hyperparathyroidism?
2- ulcers
3- nausea
4- pancreatitis
What CNS and neuromuscular problems will you see in hyperparathyroidism?
1-depression and weakness
What is the leading cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism?
renal failure followed by Ca and Vit. D deficiencies
Describe the meachanism of how renal failure leads to hyperparathyroidism.
1- decreased PO4 excretion
2- decreased serum Ca---> hyperplasia of parathyroid and PTH secretion
Can secondary hyperparathyroidism lead to calciphylaxis? What is this?
yes, Ca in the blood vessels leading to ischemia of other organs
What are 3 causes of hypothyroidism?
1- surgical removal
2- congenital absence (DeGeorges)
3- autoimmune
What are 6 clincial signs of hypothyroidism?
1- decreased Ca
2- Increased PO4
3- tetany
4- convulsions
5- Chvostek sign
6- Trousseau's sign
Can hypoparathyroidism lead to cataracts and dental root hypoplasia?
Describe pseudohypoparathyroidism.
End organ resistance to PTH, PTH levels are elevated but Ca levels are low
What are the hormones released from the adrenal gland?
2- aldosterone
3- androgens
What stimulates the release of cortisol?
ACTH from the ant. pit.
What are 3 functions of cortisol?
1- inhibits glucose uptake into the cells
2- promotes fat deposition
3- increasees hepatic gluconeogensis
Cushings syndrome is an _____.
excess of cortisol
What are 5 causes of cushings?
1- long term steroid use
2- ACTH-producting neoplasm of the pit.
3-Excessive hypothalamic stimulation of ACTH release
4- functional adrenal neoplasm or hyperplasia
5- ectopic ACTH produced by malignacy
What are some clinical manifestations of cushings?
1- central obesity
2- buffalo hump
3- moon face
4- hirsutism
5- excess androgens
6- hyperglycemia
What can you use to determine the etiology of cushings?
the dexamethasone suppression test.
Using the DEX test you see plasma ACTH go down you can say the cause is due to______?
adrenal cushings
Using the DEX test (high dose) if you see that urine steriods go down you can say the cause is due to ____?
pituitary tumor
What are 5 clinical features of Hyperaldosteronism?
1- HTN
2- fatigue
3- increased Na
4- decreased K
5- metabolic acidoisis
A cause of primary hyperaldosterone is _____.
Conns syndrome (adrenal adenoma)
What are lab results of primary hyperaldosterone?
increased aldosterone and DECREASED renin
What are 2 causes of secondary hyperaldosterone?
1- CHF----> deminished renal perfusion
2- renal artery stenosis
What are the lab results of Secondary hyperaldosterone?
Increased aldosterone and INCREASED renin (the kidney can not help)
What is the most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia? What will you see here?
21-hydroxylase deficiency

Androgen excess and Na wasting due to the aldosterone deficiency.
17-hydroxylase deficiency leads to ______.
androgen deficiency and accumulations of mineralcorticoid activity (Na retention and HTN)
What are the 2 forms of primary hypoadrenalism?
1- waterhouse-friedericksen
2- addisons disease
What are some clinical features of hypoadrenalism?
1- weakness
2- decreased glucose
3- wt loss
4- decreased Na
5- increased ACTH
6- can not withstand stress
What are some possible etiologys of Addisons?
1- autoimmune
2- viral (herpes, CMV, AIDS)
3- chronic infection(fungal, TB)
4- metastatic cancer
5- systemic disease (amyloidosis, saroid, hemochromatosis)
What is the pathology of addisons?
1- shrunken atrophic glands
2- lymphoid infiltrates
3- etc....
What is a pheochromocytoma?
a tumor of neural crest cells in the adrenal medulla that secretes catecholamines
Is a neuroblastoma malignant? At what age is it most common? Is it limited to the adrenal medulla?
yes!!, kids under 5 yrs, it can occur anywhere along the sympathetic NS
What is MEN syndrome?
multiple Endrocrine Neoplasia
What are the 3 prototypes of MEN?
MEN-I = 3 Ps (defect in tumor suppressor gene 11q13
MEN-II = (Sipples), mutation of RET
MEN-III = (william ), defect in RET different from MEN II
What are 3 characteristics of MEN-II?
1-medullary carcinoma of thyroid
3- parathyroid hyperplasia