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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The hypothalamus controls the ____.
pituitary
The hypothalamus operates on the principle of ____ feedback.
negative
The ____ secretes stimulating and inhibiting hormones.
hypothalamus
The anterior pituitary secretes these 6 hormones.
1. TSH
2. ACTH
3. GH
4. FSH/LH
5. prolactin
Posterior pituitary secretes these two hormones.
1. oxytocin
2. ADH
What are the two endocrine glands that are not under hypothalamic control?
1. parathyroid glands
2. pancreas
Which gland is called the master gland due to its influence over so much of the body's functioning?
pituitary gland
All the other glands depend on the secretions of this gland for stimulation.
pituitary gland
Thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates the thyroid to secrete?
T3 and T4
T3 and T4 controls the metabolism of ____, ____, ____ and affects ____, ____, ____, and ____.
CHO, fats, protein, CV, neuro, GI, reproductive functioning
ACTH stimulates the adrenal medulla to secrete what two hormones?
epinephrine, norepinephrine
ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete ____, ___, and ___.
cortisol, mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone), androgens
Cortisol does what 3 things?
Stimulates gluconeogenesis, decreases inflammation, and suppresses immune response
What does aldosterone do?
Increased reabsorption of sodium and water with increased excretion of potassium
PTH does what?
maintains serum calcium levels
80-90% are pituitary adenomas which produce at least one pituitary hormone such as ___, ___, and ___.
growth hormone, prolactin, ACTH
Signs and symptoms of a pituitary adenoma:
-headaches
–loss of peripheral vision
–unstable temperature
–neurological manifestations,
emotional changes
-hydrocephalus
-signs associated with excessive growth hormone, prolactin, ACTH
Drug therapy for pituitary adenomas is ___.
bromocriptine
With bromocriptine monitor for ___.
hypertension
Which hormone is of greatest concern after a transphenoidal hypophysectomy?
cortisol
After a transphenoidal hypophysectomy, which 3 hormones may need to be replaced?
cortisol, ADH, thyroid hormone
Medication to treat acromegaly?
octreotide
Medication to treat hyperprolactinemia?
bromocriptine
This medication is used for chronic SIADH.
demeclocycline
Surgery for a pituitary adenoma is called?
transphenoidal hypophysectomy
Which hormone is of greatest concern post-op for a transphenoidal hypophysectomy?
cortisol
___ which inhibits prolactin secretion is used for hyperprolactinemia.
bromocriptine
5 S/S of hyperprolactinemia:
1. galactorrhea
2. decreased libido
3. erectile dysfunction
4. menstrual irregularities
5. decreased visual fields
Medication for pituitary DI?
desmopressin (DDAVP)
Acute SIADH is treated with?
hypertonic saline (3%)
Chronic SIADH is treated with?
-fluid restriction
-high sodium diet
-Lasix
-demeclocycline (blocks the action of ADH)
What medications are used to treat SIADH?
demeclocycline, Lasix
S/S of hypothyroidism?
-mental retardation in infants
-intolerant to cold, low temperature, dry skin, dry hair
-increased interstitial fluid (myxedema)
-*increased cholesterol and TG
-*anemia
-bradycardia, enlarged heart, hypotension
-apathy, slow speech, lethargy, parasthesia
-reproductive abnormalities
-goiter, may or may not be present
In hypothyroidism, TSH is ___ and T3 and T4 are ___.
elevated, decreased
Medication for hypothyroidism?
levothyroxine (synthroid)
FACT:
Synthroid is best absorbed if taken on an empty stomach.
FACT:
Iron interferes with the absorption of Synthroid.
S/S of hyperthyroidism:
-goiter
-increased body temperature, intolerant to heat
-increased appetite, weight loss, weakness, diarrhea
-decreased cholesterol and TG
-tachycardia, increased BP, CHF, *A-fib, DOE, CP
-nervousness, restless, insomnia, tremors
-osteoporosis
-exophthalmos (volume expansion of muscle tissue)
-altered reproductive function
In hyperthyroidism TSH levels are ___ and T3 and T4 levels are ___.
decreased, elevated
Medications used for hyperthyroidism?
1. Lugol's solution
2. BB
3. thioamides (PTU, tapazole)
What is the risk of thioamides (PTU, tapazole)for hyperthyroidism?
agranulocytosis
Radioactive iodine therapy is used in ___.
hyperthyroidism
S/S of hypoparathyroidism:
-tetany
-laryngospasms
-seizures
-EKG changes
Pathophysiology of hyperparathyroidism:
-hypercalcemia
-osteoporosis
-kidney stones
-peptic ulcer disease
FACT:
Cortisol itself possesses mineralcorticoid activity; therefore, cortisol excess results in characteristic signs and symptoms of increased mineralcorticoid activity.
FACT:
Watch for signs of DVT in Cushing's disease.
A tumor of the adrenal medulla which secretes (hypersecretion) epinephrine/norepinephrine causes this condition.
pheochromocytoma
What does pheochromocytoma cause?
Severe hypertension not responsive to meds.
Hyposecretion of cortisol and aldosterone results in this disease?
Addison's disease