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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What types of cells make up the adenohypophysis?
Cords of epithelial cells of hormone-secreting cells: somatotrophs, gonadotrophs, mammotrophs, thyrotrophs, corticotrophs.
What type of cells make up the neurohypophysis?
Terminal axons originating from neurons in the hypothalamus.
What is the embryological origin of the adenohypophysis?
Roof of the primitive mouth - ascends anteriorly to form Rathke's pouch, and the adenohypophysis.
What is the embryological origin of the neurohypophysis?
Floor of the diencephelon descends posteriorly to become the neurohypophysis.
Where is the pituitary gland located?
In the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone, covered in dura mater.
What is the blood supply to the adenohypophysis?
Superior hypophyseal artery (branch of the internal carotid) --> primary capillary plexus in the median eminence --> hypophyseal portal vein --> secondary capillary plexus within the pars distalis.
What is the blood supply to the neurohypophysis?
Inferior hypophyseal artery (branch of the internal carotid) --> directly reaches the pars nervosa.
What is the histological origin of the adenohypophysis?
Oral ectoderm.
What are the three regions of the adenohypophysis?
Pars distalis (most prominent), pars intermedia, pars tuberalis.
What hormones are secreted by the acidophilic chromophils in the pars distalis?
1) Prolactin (mammotrophs)
2) GH (somatotrophs)
"A PiG"
What are the 3 basophilic chromophils in the pars distalis?
1) FSH/LH (gonadotrophs)
2) ACTH (corticotrophs)
3) TSH (thyrotrophs)
Describe the pars tuberalis.
Wraps around the median eminence, mostly basophilic gonadotrophs that secrete FSH/LH.
Describe the pars intermedia.
Located between the distalis and tuberalis, adjacent to Rathke's pouch. Basophilic corticotrophs produce ACTH (from POMC, which also forms MSH and opioids).
Name the 5 hormones released from the hypothalamus and how they travel.
1) SRH/GHRH - Somatostatin/GH Releasing Hormone
2) PRH - Prolactin Releasing Hormone
3) GnRH - Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
4) CRH - Corticotropin Releasing Hormone
5) TRH - Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone
*Travel via the hypophyseal portal circulation down the median eminence.
What does the pars nervosa connect directly to?
True/False: Pars nervosa contains secretory cells.
Name the nerves that secrete hormones to the pars nervosa from the hypothalamus.
1) Supraoptic nerves
2) Paraventricular neurons
What are Herring bodies?
Storage components for hormones (ADH and Oxytocin) released from the hypothalamus to the pars nervosa of the posterior pituitary.
What hormone do supraoptic neurons secrete?
What hormone do paraventricular neurons secrete?