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30 Cards in this Set

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How do insulin and glucagon modulate body fuel stores?
Insulin - stores energy from glucose intake.
Glucagon - releases glucose to tissues bewteen meals.
How do insulin and glucagon modulate glycogen levels?
Insulin - promotes glycogen deposition by activating glycogen synthase.
Glucagon - stimulates glyogen breakdown by activating glycogen phosphorylase.
How do insulin and glucagon modulate gluconeogenesis?
Insulin - inhibits gluconeogenesis.
Glucagon - promotes gluconeogenesis.
How do insulin and glucagon modulate ketogenesis?
Insulin - inhibits ketongenesis.
Glucagon - stimulates ketogenesis.
How do insulin and glucagon modulate TAGs?
Insulin - activates TAG synthesis, storage of fat.
Glucagon - promotes lypolysis, freeing FFA's into the circulation.
How do insulin and glucagon modulate protein synthesis?
Insulin - stimulates protein synthesis.
Glucagon - promotes protein breakdown to amino acids, which are converted to glucose.
What is the role of somatostatin in glucose metabolism?
Somatostatin suppresses both insulin and glucagon.
What is the effect of insulin on somatostatin?
Insulin suppresses somatostatin and continues energy storage.
What is the effect of glucagon on somatostatin?
Glucagon activates somatostatin, which will inhibit glucagon (and insulin) in a negative feedback loop.
What is the effect of insulin on glucagon?
Insulin suppresses glucagon because you cannot store energy and release it at the same time.
What is the effect of glucagon on insulin?
Glucagon activates insulin to moderate glucose release, because glucose can't be wasted.
Which organs will somatostatin regulate by suppression?
Intestine and Pancreas.
In the fed state (glucose influx), how will glucagon and insulin respond?
Insulin is activated to uptake glucose into brain, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue.
In the fasting state, how will glucagon and insulin respond?
BOTH glucagon and insulin are activated (glucagon activates insulin) so glucose released by glucagon can be transported to the brain, liver, muscle and adipose tissues by insulin.
During the sympathetic (fight or flight) response, how will glucagon and insulin respond?
Glucagon is activated, while insulin levels are decreased. Increased demand for glucose in fight or flight decreases glucose uptake to the organs except for the muscle.
How do glucagon and insulin respond to severe trauma?
Stress hormones will increase glucagon levels, and insulin levels will decrease.
What is the cause of type 2 diabetes?
Insulin resistance due to a genetic disposition, excessive food intake, or both.
Which type of diabetes is insulin-dependent, and which is insulin-independent?
Type 1 is insulin-dependent, and type 2 is insulin-independent.
What is the cause of type 1 diabetes?
Non-functioning beta cells that cannot release insulin. Type 1 diabetics have no insulin in the plasma at all.
How do you treat type 2 diabetes?
Weight loss, insulin increasing drugs (sulfonylurea), exercise.
How do you treat type 1 diabetes?
Insulin injections, restrict diet, exercise.
Describe the actions of the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle after a large carbohyrdate rich meal.
Liver - large glucose uptake, no ketoacid output.
Adipose - large lipid storage.
Muscle - no protein degradation.
Describe the actions of the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle after a small meal.
Liver - smaller glucose uptake, no ketoacid output.
Adipose - smaller lipid storage.
Muscle - no protein degradation.
Describe the actions of the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle for a fasting individual.
Liver - glycogenolysis will release glucose, ketoacids also released. No insulin results in the overuse of the lipolytic pathway which releases FFA's and ketones.
Adipose - lipolysis will release FFA's into the circulation.
Muscle - protein degradation will occur.
Describe the actions of the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle in a diabetic individual.
Liver - glycogenolysis will release glucose, ketoacids also released.
Adipose - lipolysis will release FFA's into the circulation.
Muscle - protein degradation will occur.
*Body tissues sense a low level of glucose, though it is high in circulation,
What is one symptom in diabetics caused by excess glucose in the circulation?
Polydipsia/polyuria because of high osmolarity of the blood will increase urine output.
Extreme cases of diabetes will result in coma and death. Describe how this pathway would occur.
Loss of insulin leads to very high levels of glucose in the blood, which results in hypertonic kidney filtrate, loss of water and electrolytes, and dehydration. Prolonged cases of diabetes will result in very low blood pressure, loss of renal blood flow, anuria, and eventually coma/death.
What mechanism of lipid metabolism will try to compensate for diabetes?
Lipolysis and ketogenesis result in metabolic acidosis, ketonuria, and loss of Na.
What mechanisms of amino acid metabolism are affected by diabetes?
Amino acid metablism is overutilized. Increased gluconeogenesis, increased urinary nitrogen from amino acid metabolism, increased loss of K+ from the body (due to lack of insulin) and hypokalemia.
How will metabolic acidosis affect respiratory rate?
Increases respiratory rate. Increased ketoacidosis in the blood mimics an increase in carbonic acid as if there were an oxygen deficit. This will increase lactic acid production.