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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do the functions of the nervous and endocrine system differ?
Nervous performs short term crisis management

Endo regulates long term ongoing metabolic
Through what types of cells does the endocrine system communicate? What effects do these cells have?
Alter metabolic activities of tissues/organs/target cells
What does paracrine communication involve?
Chemical messengers between cells within one tissue
Name the three major endocrine glands. What are the functions of these organs?
Pituitary, Adrenal, Thyroid

Synthesize and secrete hormones
Name 5 endocrine tissues. Why are they considered endocrine tissues?
Heart, kidney, live, pancreas, intestines.

Contain cells that secrete hormones.
What are the four main classes of hormone structure? Describe any subclassifications and give examples.
Amino acid derivatives:
Tyrosine--catecholamines, thyroxine


Peptide Hormones: glycoproteins, small proteins

Lipid derivatives:
Eicosanoids: arachidonic acid, leukotrienes, prostaglandins

Steroid hormones: cholesterol
What is the general mechanism in which hormones induce their activities? Why must they use this method?
Bind to membrane receptor, activate g-protein second messenger system (cAMP, cGMP, Ca++)

Hormones are polar and cannot pass lipid membrane
How do steroid and thyroid hormones convey their effects? What is their effect?
Diffuse through membrane lipids, bind intracellular receptors. Effect gene transcription.
What are the three classes of stimuli for endocrine activity? Through what general mechanism are they largely regulated?
Humeral (blood, lymph, ECF)
Hormonal (presence/absence of hormone)
Neural (CNS activity)

Negative feedback loops
What are three methods of hypothalamic control over the endocrine system?
1) Release hormones into pituitary who'll release other hormones.
2) Brain directly releases hormones.
3) Brain uses nerve to signal onto another organ to secrete hormone (adrenal gland)
Label diag 1
1. 3rd Ventricle
2. Median eminence
3. Optic chiasm
4. Infundibulum
5. Diaphragma sellae
6. Mamillary body
7. Anterior lope
8. Pars tuberalis
9. Pars distalis
10. Pars intermedia
11. Posterior lobe (pars nervosa)
12. Sphenoid (sella turcica)
In the pituitary gland, what is the activity of the median eminence?
Neurons release regulatory factors through fenestrated capillaries (releasing hormones inhibiting hormones)
What is the anterior pituitary also known as? What regions is it subdivided into?

pars distalis/intermedia/tuberalis
What two regions is the hypophyseal portal system divided into? How are they connected? What does this allow for?
Releasing hormones (fat median eminence)
Pituitary hormone release (from anterior pituitary)

Portal vein connects the two capillary systems

Reduces amount of hormone required to have an effect
In performing an activity, what are the three classes of hormones employed? Where is each released from?
Releasing (or inhibiting) hormones from hypothala
Trophins (Hormone 1) from anterior pituitary
Hormone 2 from endocrine organ (hormone that does work)
Using PRL, describe the mechanisms of feedback control employed by the endocrine system. What does PRL do?
PRL (released from ant pit) inhibits PRF (who normally stimulates PRL) and stimulates PIH (who inhibits PRL)

Note that these are examples of positive and negative feedback.

PRL stimulates the mammary gland.
Where is thyroid stimulating hormone released from? What activity does it trigger?
What is its trophin? Effect of trophin?

Release of thyroid hormones

Thyrotrophin, promotes release of TSH
What is the function of adrenocorticotropic hormone? What trophin causes its secretion?
Stimulates release of glucocorticoids by adrenal gland

What is the role of follicle stimulating hormone? What is its trophin?
Stimulates follicle development and estrogen secretion in females; sperm production in males

What is the role of lutinizing hormone? What is its trophin?
Causes ovulation and progestin production in females; androgen production in males

What is the role of prolactin? What is its trophin?
Stimulates the development of mammary glands and milk production; no trophin--has direct effect on target organs
What is the role of growth hormone? What is its trophin?
Stimulates cell growth an replication via release of somatomedins or IGF

No trophins, but has growth-hormone releasing homrone and growth-hormone inhibiting hormone; also has direct effect on target organs/cells
What is the role of melanocyte stimulating hormone? Where is it secreted from? When is it secreted?
Stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin;
secreted by pars intermedia during fetal development
What type of nerve tissue does the pituitary gland contain? What are the effects of these neurons? Pituitary gland AKA?
axons of hypothala nerves.

neurons of supraoptic nucleus: make antidiuretic hormone to decrease amount of water lost at kidneys/elevate BP

and paraventricular nucleus: produce oxytocin to stimulate cells in mammary glands, smooth muscle cells in uterus

AKA neurohypophysis
What structure connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland?
Label diag 2.
1. Capillary
2. Follicle cells
3. Capsule
4. Thyroid follice
5. Follicle cavities
6. C Cell
What do the follicles of the thyroid glands contain?
Describe the hormonal secretions and interactions involved with the thyroid follicles.
Stored precursors (thyroglobulin which has T3 and T4).

Release T3 and T4 from thyroglobulin in follicle cavity and attach to thyroid binding globulins (TBG) in C-cell after floating through follicle cell.
Describe the mechanisms involved in the control of T4 and T3 release.
If there's a low body temperature, or low T3/T4; TH bind to mito to increase [ATP], bind to receptors that activate genes that control energy utilizaiton, and exert a CALORIGENIC (cells consume more energy, resultin in heat generation) effect.
What do parafollicular cells produce? What are they AKA? Role of their produced substance? How is their secretion triggered?
Calcitonin: helps regulate calcium concentration in body fluids (lowers blood Ca levels by inhibiting bone reabsorption. Release triggered by increase in blood calcium. They're in the thyroid FYI
Under what conditions would the pancreas respond to changes in glucose levels? How? Effects?
Rising blood glucose: Release insulin-->increase glucose transport into cells, increase glucose utilization (ATP production), increase conversion of glucose to glycogen, increase AA absorption and protein syntehsis, increase triglyceride synthesis

Declining glucose levels:
Release glucagon-->increased breakdown of glycogen to glucose, increased breakdown of fats to fatty acids, increased synthesis and release of glucose
What hormones are released by the kidneys? What are their effects?
Calcitrol: stimulates Ca++ and K+ absorption in digestive tract

EPO stimulates RBC production by bone marrow

Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
Under what conditions would the kidneys respond to changes in blood pressure and volume? How? Effects?
Decrease BP/Vol-->Decrease renal blood flow & O2 delivery to kidneys-->Release Renin & EPO
EPO: increased BC production

Renin: release angiotensinogen (from liver)-->angiotensin I-->angiotensin II (lungs)-->Aldosterone (more NA+), ADH (more concentrated urine), THIRST (increased fluid gain)-->allows for fluid retention and gain!
Describe the effect of estrogen on the gonads and its mechanism of action.
Estrogen inhibits hypothalamus region which causes release of FSH from Pituitary, and stimulates hypothalamic region that causes release of LH from pituitary.

Less FSH stimulating follicles.
LH stimulates ovulation.
Corpus luteum then releases progesterone and estrogen who inhibit hypo path to release LH, causing release of FSH for new follicle.

Follicle-->Ovulation-->Corpus Luteum-->REPEAT
What do sustentacular (Sertoli) cells release? Effect?
Inhibin: inhibits FSH
What class of tissue does interstitial tissue fall under? Comprised of? Locations? Give an example of interstitial cells that release hormones. Which hormones?

Fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages

Nerves, blood, lumph vessels

Leydig: steroids (testosterone)
Name the four types of effects caused by hormonal interactions.
Provide examples for two classes.
Antagonistic (opposing)--calcitonin, PTH
Synergistic (additive)--Insulin, glucocorticoids; FSH, LH
Permissive (one homrone required for other to produce its effect)
Integrative (hormones produce different but complimentary results)
What six hormones are essential to normal growth?
GH, TH, Insulin, PTH, Calcitrol, Reproductive hormones