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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
IUCN (world conservation union)
has maintained an international list of threatened and endangered species since 1963.
Red List of Threatened Species
put out by IUCN
Extinct in the Wild
Critically Endangered
Near Threatened
Least Concern
Data Deficient
Not Evaluated
how it becomes bye bye
• reduced population size leads to increased inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity
• this in turn lowers reproductive efficiency and makes remaining population of species more vulnerable to disease
• this in turn further reduces the population size, etc.
at risk of becoming extinct
to eliminate completely
Keystone predators*
essential for an ecosystem because without them species with no natural predators will run rampant
California Southern Sea Otter
almost died off because of fur
- 1900s thought there were zero left
-farmer bob finds some in 1938
- 1970s protected by ESA/MPA
- 2006 2600 otters out there, close to being taken off list
- farmers don't like them
Endangered Species Act (1973)*
protects “all imperiled plants and animals” and “the ecosystems upon which they depend.” The law forbids all individuals, agencies, and corporations from harming, killing, or taking any endangered animal without a permit. Each endangered species must also be granted “critical habitats” sufficient in area for their recovery specified in a “recovery plan.” enforced by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
* people say ESA is shitty as fuck, onlyl 7 species have been de-listed
Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972)*
prohibits killing, hunting, capture or harassment of all marine mammals within US waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas (except for certain limited exceptions). It also prohibits the importation of marine mammals or products derived from them (again, with certain exceptions). Protected marine mammals include all cetaceans (whales, porpoises, dolphins), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walruses), sea otters, and polar bears.
sea turtles (Green, Hawksbill, Kemps-Ridley)
Green Sea Turtle: slow moving, air-breathing, slwo to mature, beach nesting, soup & meat,

Hawkshill: used to be used for combs, jewelry

Kems-Ridley: shrimp trawlers
turtle excluder devices, types of nets that guide sea turtles out of the nets before they drrown and keep the shrimp in, it reduces bycatch and is also more efficient than normal nets
CITES (1973)*
1973, international treaty aimed to prevent or at least minimize trade in threatened and endangered species. Ultimately, enforcement is up the individual governments.

Appendix I: 800 species, if trade is not halted these species will become extinct
Appendix II: 32,500 species not necessarily threatened with extinction may become extinct if not listed
Appendix III: when one country has asked other countries for help witha species about 300 species
shark finning*
the process of cutting off sharks fins and the putting them back in the sea to drown, shark fins are a lot more expensive, people believe that shark fins are Chinese medicine, like a tonic; has little nutritionall value