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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pulmonary Embolism
the blockage of a pulmonary artery by a clot.
A ________ forms in a deep vein and then dislodges and _______ through the venous circulation.
clot (thrombus)

travels (embolizes)
Where does the blockage of an emboli most likely occur?
Blocks perfusion of the alveoli
The affected area becomes ischemic and may result in a
Pulmonary infract
Mortality rate for PE is?
<10 % but accounts for 5% of all sudden death cases.
Anatomy and Physiology
Right Heart---Pulmonary Artery

Lungs--- Pulmonary Vein---Left Heart
__1___ diffuses from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries and then binds with ___2___ to form ___3___
1) Oxygen
2) Hemoglobin
3) Oxyhemoglobin
Ventilation
the physical movement of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) in and out of the body.
Respiration
the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the environment and the cells of the body.
Oxygenation
The delivery of oxygen to the cells of the body.
Respiratory Pathophysiology (3)
Ventilation, Diffusion, Perfusion problem
Examples of Diffusion Problems
Low Oxygen
Structural alveolar injury (blebs)
Interstitial fluid accumulation
Examples of Ventilation Problem
Upper Airway obstruction
Lowers airway obstruction
Chest wall injury
Loss of neurological control
Examples of Perfusion Problems
Inadequate blood volume
Inadequate hemoglobin levels
Impaired circulatory blood flow (PE)
Is cyanosis a late or early sign of respiratory distress?
Late
General Impression what position suggests moderate to server respiratory distress?
Tripod
Patients in tachycardia is a sign of what?
Hypoxemia
Thick green or brown sputum suggest?
Infection or possibly pneumonia
Sputum that is yellow or pale gray may be caused by?
allergy or inflammation
Pink frothy sputum is usually associated with?
Cardiac disease and pulmonary edema.
What does barrel chest suggest?
Chronic COPD
The most common obstructive airway diseases include?
Asthma
COPD
Emphysema
Chronic Bronchitis
What are factors that exacerbate underlying conditions?
Stress
Infection
Exercise
External stimuli:
smoking, drugs, allergens, occupational hazards
The underlying pathophysiology in all forms of obstructive lung disease is?
Decreased expiratory airflow (reduced ability to exhale)

Air trapping (obstruction in the smaller bronchioles
During ______, the airway enlarge, allowing gas to flow past any obstruction.
Inspiration
During______ the bronchioles naturally constrict.
Exhalation
Asthma is most common in whom?
Child and young adults
Example of Extrinsic Asthma?
Pollen
What causes Chronic Bronchitis
excess mucus production
Cor Pulmonale
Suspected in COPD patients with

Neck vein distention
Abdominal bloating
Leg edema
Signs and Systems of obstructive lung disease
Sitting up right
Leaning forward to breath
Using Accessory Muscles
Coughing
Shortness of breath
Anxiety and agitation
Cigarette stains on finger tips
Common Vitals for Obstructive Airway Disease
Tachypnea
Tachycardia
Hypertension
Decrease oxygen saturation
Wheezing consider
COPD
CHF
Pulmonary embolism
Toxic Inhalation
Foreign body aspiration
What does a silent chest mean?
Absence of breath sounds detected during auscultation