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235 Cards in this Set

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A measurement that examines how much gas is being moved effectively and how much blood is gaining access to the alveoli.
??V/Q ratio
.The body cavity that contains the major organs of digestion and excretion. It is located below the diaphragm and above the pelvis.
abdomen
Motion of a limb away from the midline.
abduction
The depression on the lateral pelvis where its three component bones join, in which the femoral head fits snugly.
acetabulum
The firm prominence in the upper part of the larynx formed by the thyroid cartilage. It is more prominent in men than in women.
Adam's apple
Motion of a limb toward the midline.
adduction
The nucleotide involved in energy metabolism; used to store energy.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
adrenal glands
Pertaining to nerves that release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, or noradrenaline (such as adrenergic nerves, adrenergic response). The term also pertains to the receptors acted on by norepinephrine, that is, the adrenergic receptors.
adrenergic
Metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen.
aerobic metabolism
Slow, shallow, irregular respirations or occasional gasping breaths; sometimes seen in dying patients.
agonal respirations
Portions of the nervous system that, when stimulated, can cause constriction of blood vessels.
alpha-adrenergic receptors
The air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
alveoli
The metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the principle product is lactic acid.
anaerobic metabolism
The position of reference in which the patient stands facing you, arms at the side, with the palms of the hands forward.
anatomic position
The front surface of the body; the side facing you in the standard anatomic position.
anterior
The main artery that receives blood from the left ventricle and delivers it to all the other arteries that carry blood to the tissues of the body.
aorta
The pointed extremity of a conical structure.
apex (plural apices)
Portion of the pons that increases the length of inspiration and decreases the respiratory rate.
apneustic center
The portion of the skeletal system that comprises the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle.
appendicular skeleton
A small tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.
appendix
The smallest branches of arteries leading to the vast network of capillaries.
arterioles
One of two (right and left) upper chambers of the heart. The right atrium receives blood from the vena cava and delivers it to the right ventricle. The left atrium receives blood from pulmonary veins and delivers it to the left ventricle.
atrium
The part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and sweating.
autonomic nervous system
The part of the skeleton comprising the skull, spinal column, and rib cage.
axial skeleton
A joint that allows internal and external rotation, as well as bending.
ball-and-socket joint
Portions of the nervous system that, when stimulated, can cause an increase in the force of contraction of the heart, an increased heart rate, and bronchial dilation.
beta-adrenergic receptors
The large muscle that covers the front of the humerus.
biceps
A body part or condition that appears on both sides of the midline.
bilateral
The ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine.
bile ducts
The pressure of circulating blood against the walls of the arteries.
blood pressure
The major vessel in the upper extremity that supplies blood to the arm.
brachial artery
The controlling organ of the body and center of consciousness; functions include perception, control of reactions to the environment, emotional responses, and judgment
brain
The area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as respiration.
brain stem
The tiny blood vessels between the arterioles and venules that permit transfer of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste between body tissues and the blood.
capillary vessels
The heart muscle.
cardiac muscle
The support structure of the skeletal system that provides cushioning between bones; also forms the nasal septum and portions of the outer ear.
carotid artery
The first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens.
cecum
The brain and spinal cord.
central nervous system (CNS)
One of the three major subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "little brain"; coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly fine body movements.
cerebellum
Fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain that flows in the subarachnoid space and bathes the meninges.
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
The largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "gray matter"; made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality.
cerebrum
The portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lie in the neck.
cervical spine
Thin bands of fibrous tissue that attach to the valves in the heart and prevent them from inverting.
chordae tendineae
The name of the substance that leaves the stomach. It is a combination of all of the eaten foods with added stomach acids.
chyme
The complex arrangement of connected tubes, including the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins, that moves blood, oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and cellular waste throughout the body.
circulatory system
The collarbone; it is lateral to the sternum and anterior to the scapula.
clavicle
The last three or four vertebrae of the spine; the tailbone.
coccyx
An imaginary plane where the body is cut into front and back parts.
coronal plane
The area of the head above the ears and eyes; the skull. The cranium contains the brain.
cranium
A firm ridge of cartilage that forms the lower part of the larynx.
cricoid cartilage
A thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and cricoid cartilages that make up the larynx.
cricothyroid membrane
The portion of the tidal volume that does not reach the alveoli and thus does not participate in gas exchange.
dead space
Further inside the body and away from the skin.
deep
The inner layer of the skin, containing hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels.
dermis
A muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity. Contraction of the diaphragm (and the chest wall muscles) brings air into the lungs. Relaxation allows air to be expelled from the lungs
diaphragm
The relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
diastole
A process in which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
diffusion
The processing of food that nourishes the individual cells of the body.
digestion
Farther from the trunk or nearer to the free end of the extremity.
distal
The posterior surface of the body, including the back of the hand.
dorsal
A portion of the medulla oblongata where the primary respiratory pacemaker is found.
dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
The artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals.
dorsalis pedis artery
The complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.
endocrine system
Catalysts designed to speed up the rate of specific biochemical reactions.
enzymes
The outer layer of skin that acts as a watertight protective covering.
epidermis
A thin, leaf-shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food and liquid from entering.
epiglottis
A substance produced by the body (commonly called adrenaline), and a drug produced by pharmaceutical companies that increases pulse rate and blood pressure; the drug of choice for an anaphylactic reaction.
epinephrine
A collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; contractions of the muscle in the wall of the esophagus propel food and liquids through it to the stomach
esophagus
The amount of air that can be exhaled following a normal exhalation; average volume is about 1,200 mL.
expiratory reserve volume
To straighten.
extend
The straightening of a joint.
extension
The tubes that connect each ovary with the uterus and are the primary location for fertilization of the ovum.
fallopian tubes
The principal artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery. It supplies blood to the lower abdominal wall, external genitalia, and legs. It can be palpated in the groin area.
femoral artery
The proximal end of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum to form the hip joint.
femoral head
The thighbone; the longest and one of the strongest bones in the body.
femur
To bend.
flex
The bending of a joint.
flexion
A large opening at the base of the skull through which the brain connects to the spinal cord.
foramen magnum
A sac on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum through the common bile duct.
gallbladder
The reproductive system in males and females.
genital system
The deepest layer of the epidermis where new skin cells are formed.
germinal layer
A bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh, just below the hip joint.
greater trochanter
The small organs that produce hair.
hair follicles
A hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body
heart
The number of heartbeats during a specific time
heart rate
A protective mechanism that terminates inhalation, thus preventing overexpansion of the lungs.
Hering-Breuer reflex
Joints that can bend and straighten but cannot rotate; they restrict motion to one plane.
hinge joints
Substances formed in specialized organs or glands and carried to another organ or group of cells in the same organism. Hormones regulate many body functions, including metabolism, growth, and body temperature
hormones
Substances formed in specialized organs or glands and carried to another organ or group of cells in the same organism. Hormones regulate many body functions, including metabolism, growth, and body temperature.
humerus
The supporting bone of the upper arm.
humerus
The pressure of water against the walls of its container.
hydrostatic pressure
A "backup system" to control respiration; senses drops in the oxygen level in the blood.
hypoxic drive
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
ilium
The part of the body or any body part nearer to the feet.
nferior
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic and the abdominal organs to the heart.
nferior vena cava
The amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation; the amount of air that can be inhaled in addition to the normal tidal volume.
nspiratory reserve volume
The space in between the cells.
interstitial space
The muscle over which a person has no conscious control. It is found in many automatic regulating systems of the body.
involuntary muscle
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
ischium
The place where two bones come into contact.
joint
The fibrous sac that encloses a joint.
joint capsule
Two retroperitoneal organs that excrete the end products of metabolism as urine and regulate the body's salt and water content.
kidneys
Breathing that requires greater than normal effort; may be slower or faster than normal and usually requires the use of accessory muscles.
labored breathing
A metabolic end product of the breakdown of glucose that accumulates when metabolism proceeds in the absence of oxygen.
lactic acid
The portion of the digestive tube that encircles the abdomen around the small bowel, consisting of the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. It helps regulate water balance and eliminate solid waste.
large intestine
In anatomy, parts of the body that lie farther from the midline. Also called outer structures.
lateral
The projection on the medial/superior portion of the femur.
lesser trochanter
A band of fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones. It supports and strengthens a joint.
ligament
A large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.
liver
The lower part of the back, formed by the lowest five nonfused vertebrae; also called the dorsal spine.
lumbar spine
The bone of the lower jaw.
mandible
The upper quarter of the sternum.
manubrium
The upper jawbones that assist in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate and hold the upper teeth.
maxillae
Parts of the body that lie closer to the midline; also called inner structures.
medulla oblongata
medial
Parts of the body that lie closer to the midline; also called inner structures.
medial
Nerve tissue that is continuous inferiorly with the spinal cord; serves as a conduction pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts; coordinates heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing.
medulla oblongata
The part of the brain that is responsible for helping to regulate the level of consciousness.
midbrain
An imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and the umbilicus (navel) to the floor
midsagittal plane (midline)
The amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs per minute minus the dead space. Also called minute ventilation.
minute volume
Nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.
motor nerves
The lining of body cavities and passages that communicate directly or indirectly with the environment outside the body.
mucous membranes
The opaque, sticky secretion of the mucous membranes that lubricates the body openings.
mucus
The bones and voluntary muscles of the body.
musculoskeletal system
The heart muscle.
myocardium
The nasal cavity; formed by the union of facial bones and protects the respiratory tract from contaminants.
nasopharynx
The system that controls virtually all activities of the body, both voluntary and involuntary.
nervous system
A neurotransmitter and drug sometimes used in the treatment of shock; produces vasoconstriction through its alpha-stimulator properties.
norepinephrine
The most posterior portion of the cranium.
occiput
The pressure of water to move, typically into the capillary, as the result of the presence of plasma proteins
oncotic pressure
The eye socket, made up of the maxilla and zygoma.
orbit
Forms the posterior portion of the oral cavity, which is bordered superiorly by the hard and soft palates, laterally by the cheeks, and inferiorly by the tongue.
oropharynx
The primary female reproductive organs that produce an ovum, or egg, that, if fertilized, will develop into a fetus.
ovaries
The forward facing part of the hand in the anatomic position.
palmar
A flat, solid organ that lies below the liver and the stomach; it is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin.
pancreas
A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system, involved in control of involuntary, vegetative functions, mediated largely by the vagus nerve through the chemical acetylcholine.
parasympathetic nervous system
The areas between the temporal and occipital regions of the cranium.
parietal regions
The kneecap; a specialized bone that lies within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle.
patella
The study of how normal physiologic processes are affected by disease.
pathophysiology
Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet current needs of the cells.
perfusion
The part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. These peripheral nerves may be sensory nerves, motor nerves, or connecting nerves.
peripheral nervous system
The wavelike contraction of smooth muscle by which the ureters or other tubular organs propel their contents.
peristalsis
The bottom surface of the foot.
plantar
A sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of excretion.
plasma
Tiny, disk-shaped elements that are much smaller than the cells; they are essential in the initial formation of a blood clot, the mechanism that stops bleeding.
platelets
The serous membranes covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity, completely enclosing a potential space known as the pleural space.
pleura
The potential space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura. It is described as "potential” because under normal conditions, the space does not exist.
pleural space
A portion of the pons that assists in creating shorter, faster respirations.
pneumotaxic (pontine) center
An organ that lies below the midbrain and above the medulla and contains numerous important nerve fibers, including those for sleep, respiration, and the medullary respiratory center
pons
In anatomy, the back surface of the body; the side away from you in the standard anatomic position.
posterior
The artery just behind the medial malleolus; supplies blood to the foot.
posterior tibial artery
A small gland that surrounds the male urethra where it emerges from the urinary bladder; it secretes a fluid that is part of the ejaculatory fluid.
prostate gland
Closer to the trunk
proximal
A hard bony prominence that is found in the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen.
pubic symphysis
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
pubis
The major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs; it carries oxygen-poor blood.
pulmonary artery
The flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary arteries and all of their branches and capillaries in the lungs and back to the left atrium through the venules and pulmonary veins; also called the lesser circulation.
pulmonary circulation
The four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
pulmonary veins
The pressure wave that occurs as each heartbeat causes a surge in the blood circulating through the arteries.
pulse
The way to describe the sections of the abdominal cavity. Imagine two lines intersecting at the umbilicus dividing the abdomen into four equal areas.
quadrants
The major artery in the forearm; it is palpable at the wrist on the thumb side
radial artery
The bone on the thumb side of the forearm.
radius
The lowermost end of the colon.
rectum
Cells that carry oxygen to the body's tissues; also called erythrocytes.
red blood cells
A cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ureter and the kidney.
renal pelvis
The air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.
residual volume
The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide.
respiration
All the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, consisting of the upper and lower airways and their component parts.
respiratory system
Located in the upper brain stem; responsible for maintenance of consciousness, specifically one's level of arousal.
reticular activating system
Behind the abdominal cavity.
retroperitoneal
The connection point between the pelvis and the vertebral column.
sacroiliac joint
One of three bones (sacrum and two pelvic bones) that make up the pelvic ring; consists of five fused sacral vertebrae.
sacrum
An imaginary line where the body is cut into left and right parts.
sagittal (lateral) plane
The glands that produce saliva to keep the mouth and pharynx moist.
salivary glands
The thick skin covering the cranium, which usually bears hair.
scalp
The shoulder blade.
scapula
Glands that produce an oily substance called sebum, which discharges along the shafts of the hairs.
sebaceous glands
Seminal fluid ejaculated from the penis and containing sperm.
semen
Storage sacs for sperm and seminal fluid, which empty into the urethra at the prostate.
seminal vesicles
The nerves that carry sensations of touch, taste, heat, cold, pain, and other modalities from the body to the central nervous system.
sensory nerves
A condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to enable every body part to perform its function; also called hypoperfusion.
shock
The proximal portion of the upper extremity, made up of the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus.
shoulder girdle
Muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses at least one joint; striated, or voluntary, muscle.
skeletal muscle
The framework that gives the body its recognizable form; also designed to allow motion of the body and protection of vital organs.
skeleton
The portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
small intestine
Involuntary muscle; it constitutes the bulk of the gastrointestinal tract and is present in nearly every organ to regulate automatic activity.
smooth muscle
The part of the nervous system that regulates activities over which there is voluntary control.
somatic nervous system
Muscles arranged in circles that are able to decrease the diameter of tubes. Examples are found within the rectum, bladder, and blood vessels.
sphincters
A device used to measure blood pressure.
sphygmomanometer
An extension of the brain, composed of virtually all the nerves carrying messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It lies inside of and is protected by the spinal canal.
spinal cord
The breastbone.
sternum
The outermost or dead layer of the skin.
stratum corneal layer
The volume of blood pumped forward with each ventricular contraction.
stroke volume (SV)
Tissue, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis and serves as an insulator of the body.
subcutaneous tissue
Closer to or on the skin.
superficial
The part of the body or any body part nearer to the head.
superior
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.
superior vena cava
The glands that secrete sweat, located in the dermal layer of the skin.
sweat glands
A type of joint that has grown together forming a very stable connection.
symphysis
The small amount of liquid within a joint used as lubrication.
synovial fluid
The lining of a joint that secretes synovial fluid into the joint space.
synovial membrane
The portion of the circulatory system outside of the heart and lungs.
systemic circulation
The resistance that blood must overcome to be able to move within the blood vessels. SVR is related to the amount of dilation or constriction in the blood vessel.
systemic vascular resistance (SVR)
The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially that of the ventricles.
systole
The lateral portions on each side of the cranium.
temporal regions
The fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
tendons
A male genital gland that contains specialized cells that produce hormones and sperm.
testicle
The chest or rib cage.
thoracic cage
The chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels.
thoracic cavity
The 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. One pair of ribs is attached to each of the thoracic vertebrae.
thoracic spine
The chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels.
thorax
A firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx; the Adam's apple.
thyroid cartilage
The shin bone, the larger of the two bones of the lower leg.
tibia
The amount of air (in milliliters) that is moved in or out of the lungs during one breath.
tidal volume
The superficial landmarks of the body that serve as guides to the structures that lie beneath them.
topographic anatomy
The trunk without the head and limbs.
torso
The windpipe; the main trunk for air passing to and from the lungs.
trachea
An imaginary line where the body is cut into top and bottom parts.
transverse (axial) plane
The muscle in the back of the upper arm.
triceps
ulna
tunica media
A small, hollow tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
ureter
The canal that conveys urine from the bladder to outside the body.
urethra
A sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects and stores urine.
urinary bladder
The organs that control the discharge of certain waste materials filtered from the blood and excreted as urine.
urinary system
The outermost cavity of a woman's reproductive system; the lower part of the birth canal.
vagina
The spermatic duct of the testicles; also called vas deferens.
vasa deferentia
Exchange of air between the lungs and the environment, spontaneously by the patient or with assistance from another person, such as an EMT.
ventilation
The anterior surface of the body.
ventral
A portion of the medulla oblongata that is responsible for modulating breathing during speech.
ventral respiratory group (VRG)
One of two (right and left) lower chambers of the heart. The left ventricle receives blood from the left atrium (upper chamber) and delivers blood to the aorta. The right ventricle receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery.
ventricle
The 33 bones that make up the spinal column.
vertebrae
Muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will; skeletal, or striated, muscle.
voluntary muscle
Blood cells that have a role in the body's immune defense mechanisms against infection; also called leukocytes.
white blood cells
The narrow, cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum.
xiphoid process
The quadrangular bones of the cheek, articulating with the frontal bone, the maxillae, the zygomatic processes of the temporal bone, and the great wings of the sphenoid bone.
zygomas