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206 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
perfusion
The circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' current needs.
myocardium
The heart muscle.
pleural space
The serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity.
temporomandibular joint
The joint where the mandible meets with the temporal bone of the cranium just in front of each ear.
trachea
The windpipe.
iliac crest
The rim, or wing, of the pelvic bone.
inguinal ligament
The tough, fibrous ligament that stretches between the lateral edge of the pubic symphysis and the anterior superior iliac spine.
heart
A hollow muscular organ that receives blood from the veins and propels it into the arteries.
carpometacarpo joint
The joint between the wrist and the metacarpal bones; the thumb joint.
thyroid cartilage
A firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx.
abduction
Motion of a limb away from the midline.
costovertebral angle
An angle that is formed by the junction of the spine and the tenth rib.
liver
A large solid organ that produces bile, stores sugar for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.
angle of louis
A ridge on the sternum that lies at the level where the second rib is attached to the sternum
thorax
The chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels (the aorta and the two venae cavae).
striated muscle
Muscle that has characteristic stripes, or striations, under the microscope.
autonomic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating, that are not controlled voluntarily.
shoulder girdle
The proximal portion of the upper extremity, made up of the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus.
peripheral nervous system
The part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
subcutaneous tissue
Tissue, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis and serves as an insulator of the body.
red blood cells
Cells that carry oxygen to the body's tissues.
lumbar vertebrae
Vertebrae of the lumbar spine.
epidermis
The outer layer of skin, which is made up of cells that are sealed together to form a watertight protective covering for the body.
pulmonary artery
The major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
esophagus
A collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach.
coccyx
The last three or four vertebrae of the spine.
extend
To straighten.
retroperitoneal
Behind the abdominal cavity.
genital system
The male and female reproductive systems.
occiput
The most posterior portion of the cranium.
musculoskeletal system
The bones and voluntary muscles of the body.
deep
Further inside the body and away from the skin.
ureter
A small, hollow tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
sacrum
One of three bones that make up the pelvic ring; consists of five fused sacral vertebrae.
urinary bladder
A sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects and stores urine.
cecum
The first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens.
radial artery
The major artery in the forearm; palpable at the wrist on the thumb side.
agonal respirations
Slow, gasping respiration, sometimes seen in dying patients.
medial
Parts of the body that lie closer to the midline.
voluntary muscle
Muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will.
ulna
The bone on the small finger side of the forearm.
mucus
The opaque, sticky secretion of the mucous membranes that lubricates the body openings.
proximal
Structures that are closer to the trunk.
bile ducts
Ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine.
palmar
Ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine.
pancreas
A flat, solid organ that is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin.
connecting nerves
Nerves in the brain and spinal cord that connect the motor and sensory nerves.
capillary vessels
The fine end-divisions of the arterial system that allow contact between cells of the body tissues and the plasma and red blood cells.
sternum
The breastbone.
scupula
The shoulder blade.
cerebrum
The largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality.
fascia
A sheet or band of tough fibrous connective tissue; lies deep under the skin and forms an outer layer for the muscles.
rectum
The lowermost end of the colon.
floating ribs
The eleventh and twelfth ribs, which do not attach to the sternum through the costal arch.
femoral head
The proximal end of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum to form the hip joint.
Trendelenburg''s position
The position in which the body is supine with the head lower than the feet.
carotid artery
The major artery that supplies blood to the head and brain.
testicle
A male genital gland that contains specialized cells that produce hormones and sperm.
inferior vena cava
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic and the abdominal organs into the heart.
sweat glands
The glands that secrete sweat.
pubic symphysis
A hard bony prominence that is found in the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen.
patella
The kneecap.
anatomic position
The position of reference in which the patient stands facing you, arms at the side, with the palms of the hands forward.
skeletal muscle
Muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses at least one joint.
anterior superior iliac spines
The bony prominences of the pelvis at the front on each side of the lower abdomen just below the plane of the umbilicus.
alveoli
The air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
nervous system
The system that controls virtually all activities of the body, both voluntary and involuntary.
topographic anatomy
The superficial landmarks of the body that serve as guides to the structures that lie beneath them.
kidneys
Two retroperitoneal organs that excrete the end products of metabolism as urine and regulate the body's salt and water content.
vas deferentia (vas deferens)
The spermatic duct of the testicles.
prone position
The position in which the body is lying face down.
femur
The thigh bone.
small intestine
The portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
heart rate (pulse)
The wave of pressure that is created by the heart's contracting and forcing blood out the left ventricle and into the major arteries.
epiglottis
A thin, leaf-shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food or liquid from entering.
derebellum
One of the three major subdivisions of the brain, coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly body movements.
posterior
The back surface of the body.
spinal cord
An extension of the brain, composed of virtually all the nerves carrying messages between the brain and the rest of the body.
tibia
The shinbone.
ventral
The anterior surface of the body.
capillary vessels
The fine end-divisions of the arterial system that allow contact between cells of the body tissues and the plasma and red blood cells.
brain stem
The area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum.
apex (pleural= apices)
The tip or the topmost portion of a structure.
mastoid process
A prominent bony mass at the base of the skull behind the ear.
sternocleidomastoid muscles
The muscles on either side of the neck that allow movement of the head.
superficial
Closer to or on the skin.
mucus
The opaque, sticky secretion of the mucous membranes that lubricates the body openings.
large intestine
The portion of the digestive tube that encircles the abdomen around the small bowel, consisting of the cecum, the colon, and the rectum.
manubrium
The upper quarter of the sternum.
oropharynx
A tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea.
superior vena cava
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.
sensory nerves
The nerves that carry sensations of touch, taste, heat, cold, pain, or other modalities from the body to the central nervous system.
joint
The place where two bones come into contact.
semen
Seminal fluid ejaculated from the penis and containing sperm.
pinna
The external, visible part of the ear.
arteriole
The smallest branch of an artery leading to the vast network of capillaries.
midclavicular line
An imaginary vertical line drawn through the middle portion of the clavicle and parallel to the midline.
femoral artery
The principal artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
cervical spine
The portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lie in the neck.
xiphoid process
The narrow, cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum.
hair follicles
The small organs in the skin that produce hair.
supine position
The position in which the body is lying face up.
ulnar artery
One of the major arteries of the forearm; it can be palpated at the wrist on the ulnar side.
ligament
A band of the fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones. It supports and strengthens a joint
systole
The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially that of the ventricles.
fascia
A sheet or band of tough fibrous connective tissue; lies deep under the skin and forms an outer layer for the muscles.
pulmonary veins
The four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
ball and socket joint
A joint that allows internal and external rotation as well as bending.
Trendelenburg's Position
The position in which the body is supine with the head lower than the feet.
mandible
The bone of the lower jaw.
testicle
A male genital gland that contains specialized cells that produce hormones and sperm.
nasopharynx
The part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or soft palate.
triceps
The muscle in the back of the upper arm.
midaxillary line
An imaginary vertical line drawn through the middle of the axilla (armpit), parallel to the midline.
thoracic cage
The chest or rib cage.
plantar
The bottom of the foot.
dorsal
The posterior surface of the body, including the back of the hand.
costal arch
A bridge of cartilage that connects the ends of the sixth through tenth ribs with the lower portion of the sternum.
appendix
A small tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.
midline
An imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and the umbilicus (navel) to the floor.
seminal vesicles
Storage sacs for sperm and seminal fluid, which empty into the urethra at the prostate.
ischium
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
brain
The controlling organ of the body and center of consciousness.
urinary system
The organs that control the discharge of certain waste materials filtered from the blood and excreted as urine.
hinge joints
Joints that can bend and straighten but cannot rotate.
radius
The bone on the thumb side of the forearm.
inferior
The part of the body, or any body part, nearer to the feet.
flex
To bend.
connecting nerves
Nerves in the brain and spinal cord that connect the motor and sensory nerves.
atrium
One of two (right and left) upper chambers of the heart.
somatic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that regulates our voluntary activities, such as walking, talking, and writing.
dermis
The inner layer of the skin, containing hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels.
joint capsule
The fibrous sac with synovial lining that encloses a joint.
pubis
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
bilateral
A body part or condition that appears on both sides of the midline.
orbit
The eye socket, made up of the maxilla and zygoma.
cricoid cartilage
A rigid, ring-shaped structure that completely encircles the larynx at the top of the trachea.
lumbar spine
The lower part of the back, formed by the lowest five nonfused vertebrae.
zygomas
The quadrangular bones of the cheek, articulating with the frontal bone, the maxillae, the zygomatic processes of the temporal bone, and the great wings of the sphenoid bone.
salivary glands
The glands that produce saliva to keep the mouth and pharynx moist.
coccyx
The last three or four vertebrae of the spine.
gall bladder
A sac on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum through the common bile duct.
prostate gland
A small gland that surrounds the male urethra where it emerges from the urinary bladder.
peristasis
The wave-like contraction of smooth muscle by which the ureters or other tubular organs propel their contents.
Adam's apple
The firm prominence in the upper part of the larynx formed by the thyroid cartilage.
posterior tibial artery
The artery just posterior to the medial malleolus.
diaphram
A muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity.
brachial artery
The major vessel in the upper extremity that supplies blood to the arm.
scalp
The thick skin covering the cranium, which usually bears hair.
fallopian tube
Long, slender tube that extends from the uterus to the region of the ovary on the same side, and through which the ovum passes from ovary to uterus.
pulse
The wave of pressure created as the heart contracts and forces blood out the left ventricle and into the major arteries.
shock position
The position that has the head and torso (trunk) supine and the lower extremities elevated 6" to 12".
smooth muscle
Nonstriated, involuntary muscle; it constitutes the bulk of the gastrointestinal tract and is present in nearly every organ to regulate automatic activity.
endocrine system
The complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.
dorsalis pedis artery
The artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals.
cricothyroid membrane
A thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and cricoid cartilages that make up the larynx.
involuntary muscle
Muscle that continues to contract, rhythmically, regardless of the conscious will of the individual.
aorta
The principal artery leaving the left side of the heart and carrying freshly oxygenated blood to the body.
pancreas
A flat, solid organ that is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin.
clavicle
The collarbone.
voluntary muscle
Muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will.
paretial regions
The areas between the temporal and occiput regions of the cranium.
torso
The trunk without the head and limbs.
superior
The part of the body, or any body part, nearer to the head.
plasma
A sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of excretion.
urethra
The canal that conveys urine from the bladder to outside the body.
distal
Structures that are farther from the trunk or nearer to the free end of the extremity.
priapism
A continuous and painful erection of the penis caused by certain spinal injuries and some diseases.
skeleton
The framework that gives us our recognizable form; also designed to allow motion of the body and protection of vital organs.
motor nerves
Nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.
ventricle
One of two (right and left) lower chambers of the heart.
hypoxic drive
Backup system to control respirations when oxygen levels fall.
palmar region
The front region of the hand.
costovertebral angle
An angle that is formed by the junction of the spine and the tenth rib.
perfusion
The circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' current needs.
Blood Pressure (BP)
The pressure that the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries as it passes through them.
circulatory system
The complex arrangement of connected tubes, including the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins, that moves blood, oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and cellular waste throughout the body.
pubis symphysis
A hard bony prominence that is found in the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen.
agonal respirations
Slow, gasping respiration, sometimes seen in dying patients.
white blood cells
Blood cells that play a role in the body's immune defense mechanisms against infection.
pleura
The serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity, completely enclosing a potential space known as the pleural space.
vagina
A muscular distensible tube that connects the uterus with the vulva.
lateral
Parts of the body that lie farther from the midline.
quadrants
The way to describe the sections of the abdominal cavity.
adduction
Motion of a limb toward the midline.
platelets
Tiny, disk-shaped elements that are essential in the initial formation of a blood clot.
maxillae
The upper jawbones that assist in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate, and lodge the upper teeth.
bile ducts
Ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine.
sebaceous glands
Glands that produce an oily substance called sebum, which discharges along the shafts of the hairs.
diastole
The relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
biceps
The large muscle that covers the front of the humerus.
Fowler's Position
The position in which the patient is sitting up with the knees bent.
greater trochanter
A bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh, just below the hip joint.
thoracic spine
The 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. One pair of ribs is attached to each of the thoracic vertebrae.
mucous membranes
The lining of body cavities and passages that communicate directly or indirectly with the environment outside the body.
ovary
A female gland that produces sex hormones and ova (eggs).
abdomen
The body cavity that contains the major organs of digestion and excretion.
respiratory system
All the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, consisting of the upper and lower airways and their component parts.
acetabulum
The depression on the lateral pelvis where its three component bones join, in which the femoral head fits snugly.
digestion
The processing of food that nourishes the individual cells of the body.
cranium
The area of the head above the ears and eyes that contains the brain.
vertebrae
The 33 bones that make up the spinal column.
renal pelvis
A cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ureter and the kidney.
esophagus
A collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach.
temporal regions
The lateral portions on each side of the cranium.
anterior
The front surface of the body; the side facing you in the standard anatomic position.