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163 Cards in this Set

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Heart
muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum (breast bone) and btwn th elungs; pumping action circulates blood thruout
tricuspid valve
located btwn the r. atrium and right ventricle
mitral valve
located between the left atrium and left ventricle
semilunar valves
pulmonary and aortic valves located btwn the r. ventricle and the pulmonary artery and btwn the l. ventricle and aorta
pericardium
2-layer sac consisting of an external fibrous and internal serous layer; serous layer secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart
3 layers of the heart
epicardium
myocardium
endocardium
covers the heart
middle, thick muscular layer
inner lining of the heart
blood vessels
tubelike structures that carry blood thruout the body
arteries
bllod vessels that carry blood away from the heart; all arteries except the pulmonary artery carry oxygen and other nutrients from heart to body cells
arterioles
smallest arteries
aorta
largest artery in the body, orginating at the l. ventricle and descending thru the thorax and abdomen
veins
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. all, veins (except pulmonary veins) carry blood containg CO2 and other waste products
venules
smallest veins
venae cavae
largest veins in the body; inferior vena cava carries blood to th heart from the body parts below the diaphragm, and superior vena cavae returns the blood to the heart and upper body
capillaries
microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules; materials are passed btwn the blood and tissue thru the capillary walls
blood
composed of plasma and formed elements. such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes
plasma
clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of the blood in which cells are suspended; plasma approx. 90% water, and makes up 55% of blood volume
erythrocytes
RBC that carry oxygen; develop in bone marrow
leukocytes
WBC that combat infection and respond to inflammation; 5 types
platelets (thrombocytes)
one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process
serum
clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed
lymph
transparent, colorless tissue fluid that on entering the lymphatic system, is called lymph; contains lymphocytes and monocytes; one-way flow direction to the heart
lymphatic vessels
transport lymph from body tissues to the chest; provide a one-way flow for lymph gathered from tissues to ducts in the chest
lymph nodes
small, spherical bodies composed of lymph tissue; filter lymph to keep substances such as bacteria and other foreign agents from entering the blood; also produce lymphocytes
spleen
located in th eleft sid eof the abdominal cavity btwn the stomach and the diaphragm; in adulthood, spleen is the lrgest lymphatic organ; cleanses blood from microorg., stores blood, and destroys old RBCs
thymus gland
one of the primary lymphatic organs; plays imp. role in the development of the body's immune system, particulary form infancy to puberty (then atrophies)
angioma
hematoma
lymphoma
thyoma
tumor composed of blood vessels
" of blood
"" lymphatic tissue
" thymus gland
angiostenosis
aortic stenosis
narrowing of a blood vessel
" pertaining to aorta
arteriosclerosis
atherosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
" of fatty plaque
bradycardia
condition of slow heart
cardiodynia
pain in the heart
cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart
cardiomyopathy
Lymphadenopathy
disease of the heart muscle
"" lymph nodes (chara. abnormal enlrgemnt of lymph nodes assoc. w/ infection)
cardiovalvulitis (valvlitis)/ endocarditis
myocarditis/ pericarditis
phlebitis/ polyarteritis/
thombophlebitis/ lymphadentitis
inflammation of the valves of the heart/ inner lining of the heart/ muscle of the heart/ sac surrounding the heart/ vein/ many arteries/ a vein assoc. with a clot/ lymph nodes
ischemia
deficiency of blood (flow)
tachycardia
abnormal state of rapid heart (rate of more than 100 beats per min.)
multiple myeloma
tumors of the bone marrow
pancytopenia
abnormal reduction of all blood cells
thrombosis
abnormal condition of a blood clot
thrombus
blood clot (attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein)
splenomegaly
enlargement of the spleen
lymphadenopathy
disease of the lymph nodes
acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction
aneurysm
ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
angina pectoris
chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle
arrhythmia
any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
atrial fibrillation (AFib)
cardiac arrhythmia chara. by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria. The atria quiver instead of contracting, causing irregular ventricular response and the ejection of a reduced amt of blood
cardiac arrest
sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
cardiac tamponade
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial
cavity
coarctation aorta
congenital cardiac condition chara. by a narrowing of the aorta
congenital heart d.
heart abnormality present at birth
congestive heart failure (CHF)
inability of the heart to pump enough blood thru the body to supply the tissues and organs w/ nutrients and oxygen
coronary artery d. (CAD)
condition that reduces the flow of blood thru the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function fully
coronary occlusion
obstruction of an artery of the heart, usu. form atherosclerosis. Coronary occlusion can lead to acute myocardial infarction
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body. Most often occurs in the lower extremities
hypertensive heart d.
disorder of the heart brought about by persistent high blood pressure
intermittent claudication
pain and joint discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in occlusive artery d.
mitral valve stenosis
narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring; usu. caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
myocardial infarction (MI)
death of a portion of the myocardium caused by a lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (aka. heart attack)
peripheral arterial d. (PAD)
d. of the arteries, other than those of the heart and brain, that affects blood circulation, such as atherosclerosis and Raynaud d.
rheumatic heart d.
damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever
varicose veins
distended or tortuous veins usu. found in the lower extremities
anemia
reduction in the amt. of hemoglobin in RBC. may be caused by blood loss or decrease in production or increase in the destruction of RBC
ambolus
blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves unitl it is lodges at another pt in circulation
hemophilia
inherited bleeding d. most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII
leukemia
malignant d. char. by excessive increase in abnormal WBC formed in the bone marrow
Hodgkin d.
malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue chara. by a progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usu. beginning in the cervical nodes
infectious mononucleosis
acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus chara. by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. affects mostly young pp and transmitted by saliva
angioplasty
surgical repair of a blood vessel
atherectomy
excision of fatty plaque
endarterectomy
excision w/n the artery (excision of plaque from arterial wall)
pericardiocentesis
surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the outer layer (pericardial sac); used to treat cardiac tamponade)
phlebotomy
incision into a vein (to remove blood or to give blood or intravenous fluids)
valvuloplasty
surgical repair of a valve
splenectomy
excision of the spleen
splenopexy
surgical fixation of the slpeen
thymectomy
excision of the thymus gland
aneurysmectomy
surgical excision of an aneurysm
atrial fibrillation
procedure in which abnormal cells that trigger atrial fibrillation are destroyed by using radio frequency energy
cardiac pacemaker
battery-powered appartus implanted under the skin with leads placed on the heart or in the chamber of the heart
coronary stent
supportive scaffold device implanted in the coronary artery; used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy
emblolectomy
surgical removal of an embolus or clot (usu. with a balloon catheter)
femoropopliteal bypass
surgery to establish an alternate route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction
implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD)
device implanted in the body that continously monitors the heart rhythm
intracoronary thrombolytic
injection of an intravenous medication to dissolve blood clots in coronary blood vessels
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
procedure in which a balloon is passed through a blood vessel into a coronary artery to the area where plaque is formed. Inflammation of the balloon presses the plaque against the vessel wall, expanding the inner diameter (aka balloon angioplasty)
bone marrow aspiration
syringe is used to aspirate a sample of the liquid portion of the bone marrow; usu. from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor d. and condition of blood cells
bone marrow biopsy
needle puncture to obtain a sample of bone marrow cells, usu. from ilium for study; used to diagnose stage and monitor d. and condition of blood cells
bone marrow transplant
infusion of normal bone marrow cells from a donor with matching cells and tissue to a recipient with a certain type of leukemia and anemia
angiography
venography
radiographic imaging of blood vessels/ a vein
angioscope
instrument used for visual examination of a blood vessel
angioscopy
visual examination of a blood vessel
aortogram
arteriogram
venogram
radiographic image of the aorta/ artery/ vein (after injection of contrast medium)
echocardiogram (ECHO)
electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)
record of the heart (structure and motion) using sound/ electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiograph
instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiography
process of recording the electrical activity of the heart
digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
process of digital radiographic imaging of the blood vessels that "subtracts" or removes structures not being studied
Doppler ultrasound
study that uses sound for the detection of blood flow w/n the vessels; used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities
exercise stress test
study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
nuclear medicine scan that visualizes the heart from several different angles; a tracer substance such as a sestamibi or thallium is injected intravenously; used to assess damage to cardiac tissue
thallium test
nuclear medicine test used to diagnose coronary artery d, and assess revascularization after coronary artery bypass surgery. Thallium, radioactive isotope, is injected intravenously and taken up by normal myocardial cells; a radiation detector is placed over the heart and images are recorded
transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)
ultrasound test that examines cardiac function and structure by using an ultrasound probe placed in the esophagus, which provides views of the heart structures
cardiac catheterization
examination to determine the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels; a catheter is passed into th heart thru a blood vessel and is used to record pressures and inject a contrast medium, enabling the visualization of coronary arteries, great vessels, and the heart cahmbers
impedance plethysmography
measures venous flow of the extremities with a plethysomograph to detect clots by measuring changes in blood volumes and resistance in the vein; used to detect deep vein thrombosis
auscultation
hearing sounds w/n the body thru a stethoscope
blood pressure
pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls; written as systolic pressure (120) and diastolic pressure (80)
percussion
tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath
pulse
numbers of times per minute the heartbeat is felt on the arterial wall. The pulse is most commonly felt over the radial artery
sphygmomanometer
device used for measuring blood pressure
stethoscope
instrument used to hear internal body sounds; used for performing auscultation and blood pressure measurement
C-reactive protein
blood test used to measure the amt of C-reactive protein in the blood, which , when elevated indicates inflammation- assess risk of cardio. d
creatine phosphokinase
blood test used to measure the level of creatine phosphokinase, an enzyme of the heart and skeletal muscle released into the blood after muscle injury or necrosis
homocysteine
blood test used to measure the amt of homocysteine in the blood; homocysteine is an aa that if elevated may indicate an increased risk of cardio. d.
lipid profile
blood test used to measure the amt of lipids in a blood sample; used to evaluate the risk of developing cardio. d and to monitor therapy of existing d.; provide levels of total cholestreol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, VLDL
troponin
blood test that measures troponin, a heart muscle enzyme; released into the blood every 3 hr. after necrosis of the heart muscle and may remain elevated for 7-10 days
coagulation time
blood test used to determine the time it takes for blood to form a clot
complete blood count (CBC) and differential count (Diff)
basic blood screening that measures hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC # and morphology, leukocyte count, wbc differential count, and platelet count; provides a tremendous amt of info about the blood
hematocrit
blood test used to measure the volume and number of rbc; used in diagnosis and evaluation of anemic patients
hemoglobin
blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components (henoglobin) in RBC
prothrombin time
blood test used to determine certain coagulation activity defects and to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients taking Coumadin
atrioventricular
cardiac
intravenous
pertaining to the atrium and ventricle/
heart/
w/n the vein
cardiogenic
orginating in the heart
cardiologist
phlebologist
hematologist
physician who studies and treats d. of the heart/
veins/
blood
cardiology
phlebology
hematology
study of the heart (branch of medicine that deals with d. of the heart and blood vessels/
veins/
blood
hypothermia
condition of body temp. that is below normal
hematopoiesis
myelopoiesus
formation of blood (cells)/
bone marrow
hemolysis
thrombolysis
dissolution of RBC/
clot
hemostasis
stoppage of bleeding
plasmapheresis
removal of plasma (from withdrawn blood)
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
emergency procedure consisting of artificial ventilation and external cardiac massage
defibrillation
application of an electric shock to the myocardium thru the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm
diastole
phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax btwn contractions (lower number of diastolic reading)
extracorporeal
occuring outside the body
extravasation
escape of blood from blood vessel into the tissue
fibrillation
rapid, quivering, noncoordinated contractions of the atria and ventricles
heart murmur
short-duration humming sound of cardiac or vascular origin
hypercholesterolemia
excessive amt of cholesterol in the blood; assoc. w/ heightened risk of cardiov. d.
hyperlipidemia
excessive amt of fats (triglycerides and cholesterol) in the blood
hypertension
blood pressure that is above normal (> 140/90)
hypertriglyceridemia
excessive amt of triglycerides in the blood; assoc. w/ increased risk of cardiov. d.
hypotension
blood pressure that is below normal (< 90/60)
lipids
fats and fatlike substances that serve as a source of fuel in the body and are an important constituent of cell structure
lumen
space w/n a tubular part or organ, such as the space w/n a blood vessel
occlude
to close tightly; to block
systole
phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract (upper number of bp reading)
vasoconstrictor
agent or nerve that narrows the blood vessels
venipuncture
puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medicine, or start an intravenous infusion
anticoagulant
agent that slows the clotting process
dyscrasia
abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood
hemorrhage
rapid loss of blood, as in bleeding
allergen
environmental substance capable of producing an immediate hypersensitivity in the body (allergy); ie. dust, pollen, animal dander, and various foods
allergist
a physician who studies and treats allergic conditions
anaphylaxis
exaggerated, life-threatening rxn to a previously encountered antigen such as bee vemon, peanuts, or latex; symptoms- hives, sneezing, drop in bp, blockage of airway
antibiotic
drug that targets microorganisms to kill or halt growth/replication
antibodies
substance produced by lymphocytes that inactivates or destroys antigens
antigen
substance that triggers an immune response when introduced into the body; ie. transplant tissue, toxins
autoimmune d.
d. caused by the body's inability to distinguish its own cells from foreign bodies, thus producing antibodies that attack its own tissue; ie rhematoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus
immune
being resistant to specific invading pathogens
immunodeficiency
deficient immune response caused by the immune sys dysfunction brought on by d. or immunosupressive drugs
immunologist
physician who studies and treats immune system disorders
immunology
branch of medicine dealing w/ immune sys. disorders
infection
invasion of pathogens in body tissue; may remain localized if body's defense mechanisms are effective otherwise it may become acute, subacute, chronic
phagocytosis
process in which some of the wbc destroy the invading microrg. and old cells
vaccine
suspension of inactivated microorg. administered by injection, mouth, or nasal spray to prevent infectious d. by inducing immunity