• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/99

Click to flip

99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Emergency Use: ACETAMINOPHEN
Emergency Uses: Acetaminophen is used as substitute for
aspirin, when the latter is not tolerated or is contraindicated, to
reduce fever and/or to temporarily relieve mild to moderate
pain. Adult dose: 325−650 mg PO every 4−6 hr (maximum 4
g/day). 650 mg PR every 4−6 hr (maximum 4 g/day). Pediatric
dose: 15 mg/kg every 4–6 hr.
Emergency Use: ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
Emergency Use: To treat acute ingested poison. Adult dose: 1
g/kg mixed with at least 6–8 oz water PO or via nasogastric
tube. Pediatric dose: Same as adult.
Emergency Use: ADENOSINE
Emergency Use: To convert PSVT to a sinus rhythm in patients
refractory to common vagal maneuvers. Adult dose: 6 mg rapid
IV bolus (1−2 seconds) followed by a rapid saline flush; may
repeat in 1−2 min at 12 mg. May repeat one more time in 1−2
min at 12 mg. Pediatric dose: 0.1 mg/kg rapid IV bolus (1−2
seconds) followed by a rapid saline flush; may repeat once in 1−
2 min at 0.2 mg/kg. Maximum single dose is 12 mg.
Emergency Use: ALBUTEROL
Emergency Uses: To relieve bronchospasm in patients with
reversible obstructive airway disease (asthma, chronic bronchitis,
emphysema) and acute attacks of bronchospasm. Adult
dose: 90 μg via metered-dose inhaler (2 sprays) or 2.5 mg in
2.5−3.0 mL of NS via nebulizer, may repeat as needed.
Ventolin is also supplied in Rotacaps for use in a Rotahaler.
Two 200 mg caps should be placed and inhaled. May repeat in
6 hr. Pediatric dose: 0.15 mg/kg in 2.5−3.0 mL of NS via nebulizer,
may repeat as needed.
Emergency Use: ALTEPLASE RECOMBINANT (tPA)
Emergency Uses: To thrombolyse in acute myocardial infarction
and acute ischemic stroke. Adult dose: 15 mg IV, then 0.75
mg/kg (up to 50 mg) over 30 min, then 0.5 mg/kg (up to 35
mg) over 60 min. Pediatric dose: Not used.
To thrombolyse in pulmonary embolism. Adult dose: 100 mg
IV infusion over 2 hr.
Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: AMINOPHYLLINE
Emergency Uses: To relieve bronchospasm secondary to asthma
or COPD (emphysema, chronic bronchitis). Adult dose:
250−500 mg over 20−30 min IV infusion. Pediatric dose: 6
mg/kg over 20−30 min; maximum dose should not exceed
12mg/kg/24hr.
To relieve bronchospasm in congestive heart failure patients in
which additional fluid therapy is contraindicated; also as a cardiac
stimulant and diuretic for patients in congestive heart failure.
Adult dose: 250−500 mg in 20 ml (via Buretrol or Volutrol
container) over 20−30 min IV infusion.
Emergency Use: AMIODARONE
Emergency Uses: To treat life-threatening ventricular and
supraventricular dysrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation.
Adult Dose: 150−300 mg IV over 10 min followed by 1mg/min
over next 6 hr. Maintenance dose is 0.5 mg. The total daily
dose should not exceed 2 g. Oral loading dose is 800−1,600
mg/day in 1−2 doses, with a maintenance dose of 400−600
mg/day. Pediatric Dose: 5 mg/kg IV/IO by rapid bolus.
Maximum dose is 15 mg/kg. Oral loading dose 5−15
mg/kg/day divided in 1−2 doses, with a maintenance dose of 5
mg/kg/day.
Emergency Use: AMRINONE (Inamrinone)
Emergency Uses: Adult dose: 0.75 mg/kg IV bolus given
slowly over 2–3 min, followed by an infusion of 5–15 μg/kg
per min. An additional bolus, if needed, can be given in 30
min. Amrinone is used to support cardiac output and systemic
vascular resistance in children with septic shock or myocardial
dysfunction, such as dilated cardiomyopathy or following cardiac
surgery. Pediatric dose: 0.75-1.0 mg/kg over 5 min. If the
patient tolerates this load, it may be repeated 2 times up to a
total load of 3 mg/kg, followed by an infusion of 5-10
μg/kg/min IV.
Emergency Use: AMYL NITRITE
Emergency Use: As an adjunct antidote in the immediate
treatment of cyanide poisoning. Adult dose: 0.3 mL ampule
crushed every min and inhaled for 15−30 seconds until sodium
nitrite infusion is ready. Pediatric dose: Same as for adult.
Emergency Use: ANISTREPLASE (APSAC)
Emergency Use: To reduce infarct size in acute MI by thrombolysis.
Adult dose: 30 units IV push over 2−5 min.
Emergency Use: ASPIRIN (Acetylsalicylic Acid)
Emergency Use: To inhibit clot formation in the presence of
chest pain suggestive of an acute myocardial infarction. To
inhibit clot formation associated with thrombotic CVA (“brain
attack”). Adult dose: 160−325 mg PO (chewable).
Emergency Use: ATENOLOL
Emergency Uses: To treat acute coronary syndromes including
non-Q-wave MI and unstable angina. Beta blockers also reduce
the incidence of ventricular fibrillation. Adult dose: 5 mg slow
IV (over 5 min); wait 10 min, then if the first dose is well tolerated,
give a second 5 mg slow IV (over 5 min). Pediatric
dose: 0.8−1.5 mg/kg/day PO (maximum 2 mg/kg/day).
Emergency Use: ATRACURIUM
Emergency Uses: To produce skeletal muscle relaxation to
facilitate endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation.
Adult dose: 0.4−0.5 mg/kg IV. Pediatric dose: less than 2
yr: 0.3−0.4 mg/kg IV; more than 2 yr: same as for adult.
Emergency Use: ATROPINE
Emergency Uses: To increase cardiac output in symptomatic
bradycardia (e.g., altered mental status, hypotension, cardiac
ectopy, chest pain, CHF). Adult dose: 0.5−1.0 mg IV, 2 mg ET.
May repeat every 3−5 min up to 0.04 mg/kg. Pediatric dose:
0.02 mg/kg IV, 0.04 mg/kg ET. Minimum dose is 0.1 mg. May
repeat in 5 min up to 1 mg. To restore cardiac function inbradyasystolic cardiac arrest. Adult dose: 1 mg IV, 2 mg ET.
May repeat every 3−5 min up to 0.04 mg/kg. Pediatric dose:
Not used in pediatric asystole. As a parasympatholytic in
organophosphate poisoning. Adult dose: 2−5 mg IV/IM every
10−15 min. Pediatric dose: 0.05 mg/kg IV/IM/ IO every 10−15
min.
Emergency Use: BRETYLIUM
Emergency Uses: To treat ventricular tachycardia and ventricular
fibrillation refractory to lidocaine. Adult dose: 5 mg/kg
IV; repeat at 10 mg/kg IV every 15−30 min up to 30 mg/kg.
Following conversion, administer IV infusion at 1−2 mg/min.
Pediatric dose: 5 mg/kg IV; repeat bolus of 10 mg/kg in 15−30
min.
Emergency Use: BUMETANIDE
Emergency Use: To promote diuresis in congestive heart failure
and pulmonary edema. Adult dose: 0.5−1 mg IM/IV over 1−
2 min. Repeat doses may be administered in 2−3 hr as needed.
Emergency Use: BUTORPHANOL
Emergency Use: To relieve moderate to severe pain. Adult
dose: 1 mg IV or 3−4 mg IM every 3−4 hr as needed.
Emergency Use: CALCIUM CHLORIDE
Emergency Uses: To treat hyperkalemia (elevated potassium),
hypocalcemia (decreased calcium), hypermagnesemia (elevated
magnesium) and calcium channel blocker toxicity. Adult dose:
2−4 mg/kg (10% solution) IV every 10 min as needed.
Pediatric dose: 20 mg/kg (10% solution) IV, repeated once in
10 min as needed.
Emergency Use: CALCIUM GLUCONATE
Emergency Uses: To treat cardiac toxicity of hyperkalemia, as
an antidote for magnesium sulfate, and to treat calcium channel
blocker overdose. Adult dose: 5–8 mL of a 10% solution.
Repeat as necessary in 10 min intervals.
Emergency Use: CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE
Emergency Uses: To manage severe anxiety and tension; to
manage acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms (delirium
tremens). Adult dose: 50−100 mg IV/IM.
Emergency Uses: CHLORPROMAZINE
Emergency Uses: To manage acute psychotic episodes,
intractable hiccups, or nausea and vomiting. Adult dose: 25−50
mg IM. Pediatric dose: 0.5 mg/kg IM; 1.0 mg/kg PR.
Emergency Uses: DEXAMETHASONE
Emergency Uses: To reduce the inflammatory process in allergic
reactions such as anaphylaxis, asthma and COPD; to reduce
cerebral edema. Adult dose: 4−24 mg IV/IM. Pediatric dose:
0.5–1.0 mg/kg.
Emergency Uses: DEXTROSE 50%
Emergency Use: To increase blood sugar levels in documented
hypoglycemia.
Adult dose: 25 g of 50% solution IV. Pediatric dose: 2 mL/kg
of 25% solution IV.
Emergency Uses: DIAZEPAM
Emergency Uses: To eradicate seizure activity, especially status
epilepticus. Adult dose: 5−10 mg IV/IM. Pediatric dose:
0.5−2 mg IV/IM.
Emergency Uses: DIAZOXIDE
Emergency Use: To rapidly decrease BP in hypertensive crisis.
Adult dose: 1−3 mg/kg IV up to 150 mg given over 30 sec
repeated at 5−15 min intervals as needed. Pediatric dose: Same
as adult.
Emergency Uses: DIGOXIN
Emergency Uses: To increase cardiac output in congestive heart
failure and to stabilize supraventricular tachydysrhythmias, especially
atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. Adult dose: 0.25−0.5
mg slow IV. Pediatric dose: 10−50 μg/kg (age dependent) IV.
Emergency Uses: DIGOXIN IMMUNE FAB
Emergency Uses: To treat potentially life-threatening digoxin
or digitoxin intoxication in carefully selected patients. Adult
dose: Dosages vary according to amount of digoxin to be neutralized;
dosages are based on total body load or steady state
serum digoxin concentrations (see package insert); some
patients may require a second dose after several hours.
Emergency Uses: DILTIAZEM
Emergency Uses: To control supraventricular tachydysrhythmias
(atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, PSVT refractory to
adenosine); to increase coronary artery perfusion in angina
pectoris. Adult dose: 0.25 mg/kg IV bolus over 2 min; if inadequate
response, may repeat in 15 min with 0.35 mg/kg, followed by a continuous infusion of 5−10 mg/hr (recommended
maximum dose: 15 mg/hr for 24 hr).
Emergency Uses: DIMENHYDRINATE
Emergency Uses: To relieve nausea/vomiting associated with
motion sickness and narcotic use. Adult dose: 12.5−25 mg IV;
50 mg IM every 4 hr as needed. Pediatric dose: 1.25 mg/kg
every 4 hr up to 300 mg/day.
Emergency Uses: DIMERCAPROL
Emergency Uses: As an antidote for acute arsenic and gold
poisoning. Adult dose: 2.5−3.0 mg/kg IM. Pediatric dose:
Same as for adult.
As an antidote for acute mercury poisoning. Adult dose: 5
mg/kg IM. Pediatric dose: Same as for adult.
As an antidote for acute lead encephalopathy. Adult dose: 4
mg/kg IM. Pediatric dose: Same as for adult.
Emergency Uses: DOBUTAMINE
Emergency Uses: To increase cardiac output in congestive
heart failure/cardiogenic shock. Adult dose: 2−20 μg/kg/min
IV. Pediatric dose: Same as adult.
Emergency Uses: DOPAMINE
Emergency Uses: To increase end-organ perfusion in cardiogenic
shock and in hemodynamically significant hypotension
(70−100 mmHg) not resulting from hypovolemia. Adult dose:
2−5 μg/kg/min up to 20 μg/kg/min, titrated to effect. Pediatric
dose: Same as adult
Emergency Uses: DROPERIDOL
Emergency Uses: To reduce nausea and vomiting in patients
refractory to the first-line antiemetics (promethazine, chlorpropazine,
etc.) and to a produce a tranquilizing effect. It also
can be used as an antipsychotic in patients showing marked
psychosis requiring pharmacologic therapy. Adult dose: 2.5−
10.0 mg IV. Pediatric dose: 0.088−0.165 mg/kg IV.
Emergency Uses: ENOXAPARIN
Emergency Uses: To inhibit clot formation in unstable angina
and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Adult dose: 1 mg/kg SC.
To treat pulmonary embolism: Adult dose: 0.5 mg/kg IV.
Emergency Uses: EPINEPHRINE
Emergency Uses: To restore cardiac rhythm in cardiac arrest.
Adult dose: 1 mg 1:10,000 IV every 3−5 min until circulation
restored. If given via ET tube, give 2.0−2.5 mg 1:1,000.
Pediatric dose: 0.01 mg/kg 1:10,000 IV/IO. If given via ET,
give 0.1 mg/kg of 1:1,000. All subsequent doses (IV/IO) at 0.1
mg/kg of 1:1,000.
For treatment of allergic reactions. Adult dose: 0.3−0.5 mg
1:1,000 SC, every 5−15 min as needed; or 0.5−1.0 mg
1:10,000 IV if SC dose ineffective or reaction severe. Pediatric
dose: 0.01 mg/kg 1:1000 SC or 0.01 mg/kg of 1:10,000 IV
every 10−15 min if SC dose ineffective or reaction severe.
Emergency Uses: ESMOLOL
Emergency Use: To convert supraventricular tachydysrhythmias
accompanied by a rapid ventricular response. Adult dose:
Loading dose is 500 μg/kg/min IV for 1 min. Maintenance dose is 50 μg/kg/min IV for 4 min. If unsuccessful, repeat
loading dose every 4 min and increase maintenance dose by 50
μg/kg/min until desired effect is reached. Do not exceed maintenance
dose of 300 μg/kg/min.
Emergency Uses: ETOMIDATE
Emergency Uses: To induce sedation for endotracheal intubation.
Adult dose: 0.1−0.3 mg/kg IV over 15−30 seconds.
Pediatric dose: Children older than 10 yr, same as for adult.
Emergency Uses: FENTANYL CITRATE
Emergency Uses: To induce sedation during rapid sequence
intubation procedure; to control severe pain. Adult dose: 25−
100 μg slow IV (over 2−3 min).
Pediatric dose: 2.0 μg/kg slow IV/IM.
Emergency Uses: FLECAINIDE
Emergency Uses: To convert atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation,
AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, and SVT associated with
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Adult dose: 100 mg PO
every 12 hr; may increase by 50 mg twice a day every 4 days
to a maximum of 400 mg/day. IV dose is 2 mg/kg administered
at 10mg/min. Pediatric dose: 1−3 mg/kg/day PO in 3 divided
doses (maximum 8 mg/kg/day).
Emergency Uses: FLUMAZENIL
Emergency Use: To reverse the respiratory depression caused
by benzodiazepines.
Adult dose: 0.2 mg IV over 30 seconds. May be repeated up to
1 mg.
Emergency Uses: FOSPHENYTOIN
Emergency Uses: Fosphenytoin is used to control seizures,
especially status epilepticus; and to prevent seizures in seizureprone
patients. Adult dose: IV loading dose of 15−20 mg
PE/kg administered at 100−150 mg PE/min. Initial maintenance
dose is 4−6 mg PE/kg/day. All fosphenytoin doses are
expressed in phenytoin sodium equivalents (PE) to ease calculations
between phenytoin and fosphenytoin.
Emergency Uses: FUROSEMIDE
Emergency Uses: To treat acute pulmonary edema and congestive
heart failure. Adult dose: 40−120 mg slow IV. Pediatric
dose: 1 mg/kg slow IV.
Emergency Uses: GLUCAGON
Emergency Uses: To increase blood glucose levels in hypoglycemia
without IV access. Adult dose: 1.0 mg IM/SC, may
repeat every 5−20 min. Pediatric dose: Less than 10 kg: 0.1
mg/kg IM/SC/IV. More than 10 kg: 1.0 mg/kg IM/SC/IV. May
repeat in 20–30 min.
To reverse the effects of beta blocker overdose. Adult dose: 50−
150 mg/kg IV over 1 min. Pediatric dose: 50–150 mg/kg IV
over 1 min.
Emergency Uses: HALOPERIDOL
Emergency Use: To manage acute psychotic disorders. Adult
dose: 2−5 mg IM. Pediatric dose: 0.05−0.15 mg/kg/day PO in
2−3 divided doses.
Emergency Uses: HEPARIN
Emergency Use: To prevent thrombus formation in acute MI.
Adult dose: 5000 units IV; then 20,000−40,000 units IV over
24 hr.
Emergency Uses: HYDRALAZINE
Emergency Uses: To reduce blood pressure in hypertensive
crisis and preeclampsia. Adult dose: 20−40 mg IV/IM. May be
repeated in 4−6 hr. Pediatric dose: 0.1–0.5 mg/kg/day IV/IM.
Emergency Uses: HYDROCORTISONE
Emergency Uses: To reduce inflammation during an allergic
reaction, severe anaphylaxis, asthma, or COPD; to treat
urticaria. Adult dose: 40−250 mg IV/IM. Pediatric dose: 4–8
mg/kg/IM/IV.
Emergency Uses: HYDROXYZINE
Emergency Uses: To manage an acute anxiety attack. Adult
dose: 50−100 mg deep IM. Pediatric dose: 1 mg/kg IM.
To control nausea and vomiting. Adult dose: 25−50 mg deep
IM. Pediatric dose: 1 mg/kg deep IM.
Emergency Uses: IBUPROFEN
Emergency Uses: To reduce fever; to temporarily relieve mild
to moderate pain. Adult dose: 200−400 mg PO every 4−6 hr up
to 1200 mg/day. Pediatric dose: 5−10 mg/kg PO every 4−6 hr
up to 40 mg/kg/day.
Emergency Uses: IBUTILIDE
Emergency Uses: To convert atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation
of relatively short duration. Adult dose: In patients weighing
more than 60 kg, 1 mg over 10 min IV. In patients weighing
less than 60 kg, 0.01 mg/kg IV. May repeat in 10 min if inadequate
response.
Emergency Uses: INSULIN
Emergency Uses: To reverse effects of hyperglycemia and
diabetic coma. Adult dose: 5−10 units IV/IM/SC of regular
insulin loading dose. Maintenance dose is based on blood glucose
levels. Pediatric dose: 2−4 units IV/IM/SC of regular
insulin loading dose. Maintenance dose is based on blood glucose
levels.
Emergency Uses: IPECAC SYRUP
Emergency Uses: To induce vomiting of unabsorbed ingested
poisons. Adult dose: 30 mL PO followed by 1−2 glasses of
water; may repeat once in 20 min if necessary. Pediatric dose:
15 mL followed by 1−2 glasses of water; may repeat once in 20
min if necessary.
Emergency Uses: IPRATROPIUM
Emergency Uses: To relieve bronchospasm in patients with
reversible obstructive airway disease (asthma, chronic bronchitis,
emphysema) and acute attacks of bronchospasm. Adult
dose: 500 μg in 2.5−3.0 mL via nebulizer or 2 inhalations from
a metered dose inhaler (MDI). Pediatric dose: 125−250 μg in
2.5−3.0 mL via nebulizer, or 1−2 inhalations from MDI.
Emergency Uses: ISOETHARINE
Emergency Uses: To relieve bronchospasm in patients with
reversible obstructive airway disease (asthma, chronic bronchitis,
emphysema) and acute attacks of bronchospasm. Adult
dose: 1−2 inhalations via metered-dose inhaler; 0.5 mL in 2−3
mL saline via nebulizer; 0.5 mL in 2−3 mL saline via bagvalve-
mask (BVM). Pediatric dose: 0.01 mL/kg of 1% solution
(maximum 0.5 mL) diluted in 2−3 mL normal saline.
Emergency Uses: ISOPROTERENOL
Emergency Use: To increase cardiac output by increasing the
heart rate in symptomatic bradycardia refractory to atropine when
transcutaneous pacing is not available. Adult dose: 2−10 μg/min
titrated to rate. Pediatric dose: 0.1 μg/kg/min titrated to rate.
To dilate the bronchial tree in severe status asthmaticus:
Adult dose: 1−2 inhalations of MDI.
Pediatric dose: Same as for adult.
Emergency Uses: KETOROLAC
Emergency Use: To relieve mild to moderate pain. Adult dose:
IV loading dose: 30 mg (15 mg if patient is older than 65 yr, or
weighs less than 50 kg). IM: 30−60 mg loading dose. Pediatric
dose: Rarely used.
Emergency Uses: LABETALOL
Emergency Use: To manage an acute hypertensive crisis. Adult
dose: 20 mg slow IV with 40−80 mg every 10 minutes as
needed up to 300 mg total, or 2 mg/min continuous infusion up
to 300 mg total dose. Pediatric dose: Safety in children has not
been established.
Emergency Uses: LIDOCAINE
Emergency Uses: To convert ventricular dysrythymias (ventricular
fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia) in cardiac arrest to
sinus rhythm. Adult dose: 1.0−1.5 mg/kg IV. Repeat every 3−5
min as needed up to 3 mg/kg. Following conversion, begin
infusion at 2−4 mg/min. Pediatric dose: 1 mg/kg IV. Repeat as needed every 3−5 min up to 3 mg/kg. Following conversion,
begin infusion at 20−50 μg/kg/min.
To convert ventricular tachycardia with a pulse to sinus rhythm.
Adult dose: 1.0−1.5 mg/kg slow IV. May repeat at one-half
dose every 5−10 min until conversion up to 3 mg/kg.
Following conversion, begin infusion at 2−4 mg/min. Pediatric
dose: 1 mg/kg IV followed by an infusion at 20−50 μg/kg/min.
Emergency Uses: LORAZEPAM
Emergency Uses: To induce sedation for cardioversion. Adult
dose: 2−4 mg IM; 0.5−2 mg IV. Pediatric dose: 0.03−0.05
mg/kg IV/IM/PR up to 4 mg.
To manage status epilepticus. Adult dose: 2 mg slow IV (2
mg/min). Pediatric dose: 0.1 mg/kg slow IV (over 2−5 min), repeat one-half dose as needed. The drug may be given rectally
if an IV cannot be placed.
Emergency Uses: MAGNESIUM SULFATE
Emergency Uses: To reverse refractory ventricular fibrillation
and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Adult dose: 1−2 g IV
over 1−2 min. Pediatric dose: 25–50 mg/kg IV/IM.
To reverse torsades de pointes: Adult dose: 1–2 g IV followed
by infusion of 0.5–1.0 g/hr IV. Pediatric dose: 25–50 mg/kg
IV/IM.
To provide prophylaxis following acute myocardial infarction.
Adult dose: 1−2 g IV over 5−30 min. Pediatric dose: Not used.
To manage seizures caused by eclampsia. Adult dose: 2−4 g
IV/IM. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: MANNITOL
Emergency Use: To reduce acute cerebral edema. Adult dose:
1.5−2.0 g/kg slow IV infusion. Pediatric dose: 0.25−0.5 g/kg
IV over 60 min.
Emergency Use: MEPERIDINE
Emergency Uses: To relieve moderate to severe pain. Adult
dose: 25−50 mg IV; 50−100 mg IM. Pediatric dose: 1 mg/kg
IV/IM.
Emergency Use: METAPROTERENOL
Emergency Uses: To relieve bronchospasm in patients with
reversible obstructive airway disease (asthma, chronic bronchitis,
emphysema) and acute attacks of bronchospasm. Adult dose: 0.65 mg via metered-dose inhaler (2 sprays); 0.2−0.3 mL
in 2.5−3.0 mL saline via nebulizer. Pediatric dose: 0.1−0.2
mL/kg of 5% solution in 2.5−3.0 mL saline via nebulizer.
Emergency Use: METARAMINOL
Emergency Uses: To manage hemodynamically significant
hypotension not due to hypovolemia. Adult dose: 100 mg in
500 mL of D5W or NS titrated to BP response; 5−10 mg IM.
Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: METHYLPREDNISOLONE
Emergency Uses: To reduce the inflammation caused by
severe anaphylaxis and asthma/COPD; to treat urticaria. Adult
dose: 125−250 mg IV/IM. Pediatric dose: 1–2 mg/kg/dose
IV/IM. For treatment of suspected spinal cord injury: 30 mg/kg
loading dose IV; followed by IV infusion of 5.4 mg/kg/hr for
23 hours.
Emergency Use: METOCLOPRAMIDE
Emergency Use: To relieve severe nausea and vomiting: Adult
dose: 10−20 mg IM; 10 mg slow IV (over 1−2 min). Pediatric
dose: 1–2 mg/kg/dose.
Emergency Use: METOPROLOL
Emergency Uses: To reduce the incidence of ventricular fibrillation
and other complications in patients who have recently
suffered an MI (especially in those who did not receive thrombolytic
therapy). Adult dose: 5 mg slow IV every 5 min up to
three times (if patient remains stable), resulting in a total dose
of 15 mg. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: MIDAZOLAM
Emergency Uses: To induce sedation and amnesia prior to cardioversion
and other painful procedures. Adult dose: 1.0−2.5
mg slow IV; 0.07−0.08 mg/kg IM (usual dose is 5 mg).
Pediatric dose: 0.05−0.20 mg/kg IV; 0.10−0.15 mg/kg IM; 3
mg intranasal.
Emergency Use: MILRINONE
Emergency Uses: Short term management of CHF. Adult
dose: Loading dose of 50 μg/kg IV over 10 min followed by
maintenance infusion of 0.375−0.75 μg/kg/min IV. Milrinone is
used occasionally to increase cardiac output and decrease systemic
vascular resistance in pediatric septic shock. Pediatric
dose: Loading dose of 50−75 μg/kg IV followed by an IV infusion
of 0.5−0.75 μg/kg/min.
Emergency Use: MORPHINE
Emergency Uses: To relieve moderate to severe pain. Adult
dose: 2.5−15 mg IV; 5−20 mg IM/SC. Pediatric dose: 0.05−0.1
mg/kg IV; 0.1−0.2 mg/kg IM/SC.
To reduce venous return in acute MI and acute pulmonary
edema. Adult dose: 1−2 mg every 6−10 min until desired
response. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: NALBUPHINE
Emergency Use: To relieve moderate to severe pain. Adult
dose: 5 mg IV/IM/SC; repeat 2 mg doses as needed up to 20
mg. Pediatric dose: 0.10–0.15 mg/kg IV/IM/SC (rarely used).
Emergency Use: NALOXONE
Emergency Uses: To reverse the effects of narcotic analgesics;
to manage coma of unknown origin. Adult dose: 0.4−2.0 mg
IV/IM, 2.0−2.5 times dose ET; may be repeated every 2−3 min
up to 10 mg until respirations are restored. Pediatric dose: 0.01
mg/kg IV/IM, 2.0−2.5 times dose ET; may be repeated every
2−3 min up to 10 mg until respirations are restored.
Emergency Use: NIFEDIPINE
Emergency Uses: To increase coronary artery perfusion in
angina pectoris; to manage severe hypertension. Adult dose:
10−20 mg capsule SL/PO. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: NITROGLYCERIN
Emergency Uses: To increase coronary artery perfusion and
relieve chest pain in angina and acute myocardial infarction; to
reduce preload in acute pulmonary edema. Adult dose: 0.4 mg
SL, may repeat every 3−5 min up to 3 tablets; or 1/2 to 1 inch
(1.25−2.50 cm) ointment applied topically; or 0.4 mg (1 spray)
SL spray up to 3 sprays/25 min. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: NITROUS OXIDE
Emergency Uses: To relieve pain of musculoskeletal origin
(especially fractures), burns, suspected ischemic chest pain,
and severe states of anxiety including hyperventilation. Adult
dose: Self-administered inhalation until pain is relieved or
patient drops mask. Pediatric dose: Same as adult.
Emergency Use: NOREPINEPHRINE
Emergency Uses: To restore blood pressure in certain acute hypotensive states in patients refractory to other sympathomimetics;
neurogenic shock. Adult dose: 0.5−30 μg/min IV
infusion titrated to BP. Pediatric dose: 0.01 μg/kg/min (rarely
used).
Emergency Use: OXYGEN
Emergency Uses: To manage any situation in which hypoxia is
suspected. Adult dose: 100% if patient is hypoxic. Pediatric
dose: Same as adult.
Emergency Use: OXYTOCIN
Emergency Use: To control postpartum hemorrhage. Adult
dose: 3−10 units IM following delivery of the placenta; 10−20
units in 1000 mL of D5W or NS IV infusion titrated to the
severity of the bleeding. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Use: PANCURONIUM BROMIDE
Emergency Use: To facilitate endotracheal intubation. Adult
dose: 0.04−0.1 mg/kg IV. Pediatric dose: Same as adult.
Emergency Use: PHENOBARBITAL
Emergency Uses: To control seizures, status epilepticus, and
acute anxiety attacks:
Adult dose: 100−300 mg slow IV/ IM. Pediatric dose: 6−10
mg/kg slow IV/IM.
Emergency Uses: PHENYTOIN
Emergency Uses: To control seizures, status epilepticus. Adult
dose: 10−15 mg/kg slow IV. Pediatric dose: 8−10 mg/kg slow IV.
To convert dysrhythmias induced by digitalis toxicity. Adult
dose: 100 mg slow IV (over 5 min) to a maximum loading
dose of 1000 mg. Pediatric dose: 3−5 mg/kg slow IV.
Emergency Uses: PHYSOSTIGMINE
Emergency Uses: To reverse CNS and cardiac effects of tricyclic
antidepressant overdose, to reverse CNS toxic effects of
atropine, scopolamine, and similar anticholinergic drugs. Adult
dose: 0.5−3 mg IV (not faster than 1 mg/min); repeat as needed.
Pediatric dose: 0.01−0.03 mg/kg IV; may repeat every 15−
20 min to maximum total dose of 2 mg.
Emergency Uses: PRALIDOXIME
Emergency Use: As antidote in treatment of poisoning by
organophosphate. Adult dose: 1−2 g in 250−500 mL NS
infused over 15−30 min; or 1−2 g IM/SC if IV not feasible.
Pediatric dose: 20−40 mg/kg IV/IM/SC.
Emergency Uses: PROCAINAMIDE
Emergency Uses: To convert ventricular fibrillation and pulseless
ventricular tachycardia refractory to lidocaine to sinus
rhythm. Adult dose: 20−30 mg/min IV infusion up to 17 mg/kg
loading dose. Maintenance dose is 1−4 mg/min. Pediatric
dose: 15 mg/kg IV/IO over 30–60 min.
Emergency Uses: PROCHLORPERAZINE
Emergency Uses: To relieve severe nausea and vomiting; to
manage acute psychosis. Adult dose: 5−10 mg IV/IM.
Pediatric dose: More than 10 kg or older than 2 yr: 0.13 mg/kg
IV/IM/PR (rarely used).
Emergency Uses: PROMETHAZINE
Emergency Uses: To relieve nausea and vomiting, motion
sickness; to potentiate the effects of analgesics; to induce sedation.
Adult dose: 12.5−25.0 mg IV/IM/PR. Pediatric dose: 0.5
mg/kg IV/IM/PR.
Emergency Uses: PROPAFANONE
Emergency Uses: To convert ventricular and supraventricular
dysrhythmias in patients without structural heart disease. Adult
dose: 150−300 mg PO every 8 hr. IV dose is 1−2 mg/kg
administered at 10 mg/min.
Emergency Uses: PROPRANOLOL
Emergency Uses: To convert ventricular fibrillation and pulseless
ventricular tachycardia refractory to lidocaine and bretylium;
to convert selected supraventricular tachydysrhythmias.
Adult dose: 1−3 mg slow IV (over 2−5 min), not to exceed 1
mg/min. May repeat dose in 2 min to total dose of 0.1 mg/kg.
Pediatric dose: 0.01 mg/kg slow IV.
Emergency Uses: PROSTAGLANDIN E1
Emergency Uses: To maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus
in infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease who are
dependent upon a patent ductus for life. Pediatric dose:
Prostglandin E1 is administered IV or IO at 0.05−0.10 μg/kg
per min. Prostaglandin E1 is used to ripen the cervix in anticipation
of delivery and induces labor. Adult dose: A gel is prepared
by pharmacy staff that is placed over the cervix in
diaphragm. This is replaced every 2−3 hr. The patient should
be monitored for fetal heart rate and contractions.
Emergency Uses: RACEMIC EPINEPHRINE
Emergency Use: To relieve subglottic edema in croup (laryngotracheobronchitis).
Adult dose: 0.25−0.75 mL of 2.25 solution in 2 mL normal saline via nebulizer. Pediatric dose: Same
as adult.
Emergency Uses: SODIUM BICARBONATE (NaHCO3)
Emergency Uses: To alkalinize the urine to inhance excretion
of drug overdose (tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates); to
correct severe acidosis refractory to hyperventilation; known
hyperkalemia. Adult dose: 1 mEq/kg IV, may repeat at half dose
every 10 min. Pediatric dose: Same as adult. Can be given IO.
Emergency Uses: SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE
Emergency Uses: To reduce blood pressure in an acute hypertensive
crisis. Adult dose: 0.5−10 μg/kg/min IV infusion.
Pediatric dose: Same as adult.
Emergency Uses: SOTALOL
Emergency Uses: To convert ventricular and supraventricular
dysrhythmias. Adult dose: 1−1.5 mg mg/kg IV at a rate of 10
mg/min. The oral dose is 80 mg PO bid or 160 mg PO QD
taken prior to meals. Pediatric dose: Not indicated.
Emergency Uses: STREPTOKINASE
Emergency Uses: To reduce infarct size in acute MI by thrombolysis.
Adult dose: 1.5 million units IV over 1 hr. Pediatric
dose: Not used
As a thrombolytic for clots in deep veins (DVT) and pulmonary
embolism. Adult dose: 250,000 units IV over 30 min
loading dose. Maintenance dose is 100,000 units/hr for 48−72
hr. Pediatric dose: Not used.
Emergency Uses: SUCCINYLCHOLINE
Emergency Uses: To facilitate endotracheal intubation. Adult
dose: 1.0−1.5 mg/kg IV/IM. Pediatric dose: 1.0−2.0 mg/kg
IV/IM.
Emergency Uses: THIAMINE
Emergency Uses: To treat coma of unknown origin, especially
if alcohol is involved, and delerium tremens. Adult dose: 50−
100 mg IV/IM. Pediatric dose: 10−25 mg IV/IM.
Emergency Uses: VASOPRESSIN
Emergency Uses: To increase peripheral vascular resistance
during CPR (as an alternative to epinephrine) or after epinephrine
has been used. Adult dose: 40 units IV (single dose only).
Vasopressin is used to control bleeding from esophageal
varices. It is administered by IV infusion at 0.2−0.4 units/min.
Emergency Uses: VECURONIUM
Emergency Use: To facilitate endotracheal intubation. Adult
dose: 0.08−0.10 mg/kg IV. Pediatric dose (1 yr or older):
Same as adult.
Emergency Uses: VERAPAMIL
Emergency Uses: To convert paroxysmal supraventricular
tachycardia (PSVT) refractory to adenosine, to convert atrial
fibrillation and atrial flutter. Adult dose: 2.5−5.0 mg slow IV.
May repeat at double dose in 15−30 min as needed. Do not
exceed 30 mg in 30 min. Pediatric dose: Newborn to 1 yr: 0.1−
0.2 mg/kg (not to exceed 2 mg) IV. Age 1−15 yr: 0.1−0.3
mg/kg (not to exceed 5 mg) IV.