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114 Cards in this Set

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Spina bifida where
anywhere along vert col, including skull
Spina bifida causes
CSF drainage problem b/c of hindbrain anomaly
spina bifida def
separation of vertebral elements in midline
spina bifida occulta – chars
common, hidden, hairs or fatty pouch (lipoma)
spina bifida aperta – two types
meningocele, myelo-meningocele
meningocele defects
bony defects and meningeal sac
myelo-meningocele defects
bony defect, meningeal sac, plus spinal cord or cauda
90% spina bifida cases have
hindbrain problems – can’t drain CSF->hydrocephalus
Lorbers paradox
aggr. treatment = more survivors, greater handicaps
Hindbrain problems with spina bifida
cerebellum displaces ->sp. canal+pons/medulla distort
blockage in spina bifida -> drainage problem cause
aqueduct between ventricles & spine
hydrocephalus why
CSF doesn’t drain, accumulates, ventricles increase, brain swells, head swells (bones not fused)
shunt CSF to where for hydrocephalus
peritoneal cavity
distortion/compression of brainstem problems
traction on cervical/cranial nerves: apnea - may stop breathing, dysphagia, vcal crd paralysis, head control
orthopedic treatment of spina bifida includes
kyphosis (gibbos ulceration), scoliosis treatment, correction of musc/tendons/joints
face created from
brain (neuroectoderm), neural crest cells + mesoderm
mesoderm (neural crest cells) forms which part of face
facial bones – proliferate & migrate -> face bones
skull base
from somites
skull vault
unsegmented mesoderm
placode
ectodermal thickenings: naso, optic, otic
nasal placodes form
2 frontonasal processes->split on either side of nasal pit: lateral/medial nasal placodes
fuses into mandible
mandibular arches
upper jaw
maxillary process portion of mandibular process
upper lip
mandibular processes joining frontonasal process
forms sides of roof of mouth
secondary palatal shelves
forms front of top of mouth
primary palate
bears 4 incisor teeth
primary palate (all other teeth on maxillary process)
palates fuse superiorly with
nasal septum
back of secondary palate
uvula
must be removed for palatal shelves to fuse
epithelium
Cyclops
holoprosencephaly, non-hemispheric brain, nose in forehead(or absent), 1 eye, upper lip=maxillary processes (no nasal tissue), no incisor teeth, canines in midline – mentally retarded
eyes too close
hypotelorism
eyes far apart
hypertelorism
median cleft face syndrome
hyperteloric, mentally normal, variety: facial abnorm.
cleft lip causes
genetic + environmental (pollution?): MUTATION
cleft lip may or may not occur with
cleft palate
cleft palate caused by
shelves small but otherwise normal: not enough crest cells – can’t meet, tongue not working, jaw too small – tongue can’t move, epithelium still on shelves – can’t fuse.
pharangeal arch components
cartilage, muscle, nerves (maj+min), vessels
arch grows back and buries other arches
2nd
space beneath arch that grows back
cervical sinus
Area beneath arch doesn’t disappear, causes:
branchial/pharangeal cyst – can become infected/require removal
branchial (pharangeal cyst) where?
ANTERIOR to Sternocleidomastoid (otherwise – if posterior, lymph nodes: malignancy? lymphoma?)
2nd arch fuses where
along ANTERIOR border of Sternocleidomastoid
ears develop from
neural crest cells
Arch 1 nerve
V3 (+chorda tympani of VII)
Arch 1 muscles
mastication
Arch 1 bones
mandible, plus upper parts of malleus/incus
Chorda tympani nerve serves
tast: anterior 2/3 of tongue
Arch 2 nerve
VII (+tympanic of IX)
Arch 2 muscles
facial expression
Arch 2 bones
styloid, lower malleus/incus, stapes, hyoid
Little kids with facial abnormalities may be
deaf (if Arch 1&2– face deforms, also ear ossicles)
Arch 3 nerves
IX (+auricular of X)
Arch 3 muscles
stylopharyngeus
Arch 3 bones
hyoid (lower part)
Arch 4 nerves
sup. laryngeal of X
Arch 4 muscles
larynx/pharynx
Arch 4 bones
larynx
Arch 6 nerves
recurrent laryngeal
Arc 6 muscles
larynx/pharynx
Arch 6 bones
larynx
If short of neural crest cells = result?
small mandible, hard of hearing
tongue is
epithelial bag of muscle
tongue muscle derivation
occipital bone somites
tongue muscle innervation
CN XII
portion of tongue from arch 1
lateral lingual swellings – tip of tongue
portion of tongue from arch 2
copula – connecting piece – is grown over by arch 3
portion of tongue from arch 3
hypobranchial eminence – posterior portion of tongue
Anterior 2/3 of tongue arch and innervation
1st arch, V3 lingual nerve + taste: VII chorda tympani
No nerve VII =
No taste, no taste buds: buds need nerves 4 devel.
Treacher Collins syndrome: caused by
Autosomal dominant with mutations (GENETIC)
Treacher Collins symptoms
small mandible/maxillae, cleft palate, no zygomas, anti-mongoloid eyeslant, no lower eyelashes, notched lid, DEAF: abnormal incus/malleus, malformed ears, NORMAL MENTALLY
Lateral facial displasia
due to bleeding in utero: toxic. Normal mentally, asymmetry – can involve all structures
major artery of face in adult
facial artery
major artery of face in embryo
stapedial artery (goes through hole in stapes – later obliterates)
During changeover of blood supply, problem, causes?
face is vulnerable to bleeding when changing blood supp. to face, can cause lateral facial dysplasia
endocrine glands (3)
thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary
thyroid derivation
endoderm of tongue
thyroid created from
foramen cecum tunnel at back of tongue – buds off, foramen atrophies, becomes fibrous
‘normal’ form of thyroid
two lateral lobes with connecting isthmus
if more glandular tissue, thyroid may have
pyramidal lobe
hormones of thyroid produced by
endodermal cells
thyroid has components of what germ layers
all – neural crest which migrate to thyroid, vessels from mesoderm, epithelial layer
thyroid cells produce
calcitonin
lingual thyroid
back of tongue. can be where valecula should be
thyroid in chest
descends too far
thyrotoxicosis
HUNGRY, anxious, panicky – high heart rate, heart may fail: beats too fast to fill
Thyroid deficiency in adults
Myxedema
thyrotoxicosis symptoms
staring bulging eyes, jumpy fast metabolic rate
hypothyroid
causes cretinism in children
cretinism symptoms
mentally retarded dwarfs, sleep a lot, don’t want to eat, tongue hangs out, if neo-natal, MUST give thyroid hormone, or will have developmental problems
% of newborns without thyroid
70%
% with thyroid that can’t produce/release/respond to
30% - not enough thyroid hormone = death.
Dietary reasons for cretinism
iodine deficiency, (some diets: cassava:binds iodine)
parathyroid gland purpose
high calcium level
if too much parathyroid, condition?
hyperparathyroidism: high calcium level in blood, stones in urinary tract, less calcium in bones = fractures, paranoia
mneomnic for hyperparathyroidism
stones bones moans groans
parathyroid glands develop where
pouches 3 & 4
pouch 3 parathyroid
inferior
pouch 4 parathyroid
superior
Parathyroid location, number
variable, variable.
embryonic mouth name
stomadea (from stomadeal placode)
anterior pituitary origin
stomadeal placode –> rathkes pouch -> anterior pit.
posterior pituitary origin
downgrowth of diencephalons infundibulum – posterior pituitary + stalk
effect if no anterior pituitary in kids
failure to grow
anterior pituitary produces
hGH
Posterior pituitary produces
antidieuretic hormone
Anterior pituitary stalk connection
blood vessels
Posterior pituitary stalk connection
nerves
which pituitary: acute signs if damaged – ant or post?
posterior: no antidiuretic hormone (normally gets kidney to reabsorb fluid) if gone – pour out GALLONS of urine -> patients need LOTS of IV fluid
posterior pituitary stalk if damaged
will grow back over time
benign tumour of Rathkes pouch -where ant. pit. devel
Craniopharyngioma
rathkes pouch tumour will effect
hormone & cranial nerve problems, esp. CNII, compressed by tumour growth
craniopharyngeoma symptoms
bitemporal hemianopia (can’t see out to sides or may go blind if enough nerves damaged) hormonal problems (kids with pubic hair, breasts, pigmented nipples, that are also BLIND) SURGICAL TRTMNT.