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39 Cards in this Set

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In fruits and seeds, what happens are fertilization?
The ovule matures to a seed and the ovary ripens into a fruit.
What is the purpose of fruits and seeds?
Fruits greatly improve the dispersal of seeds and some seeds themselves are modified for dispersal.
Do Gymnosperms produce seeds?
Yes, but their seeds are different from angiosperms in the fact that they are not surrounded by fruit.
What is the purpose of the seed coat?
To provide protection for the embryo.
In embryo structures, what does the radicle do?
It becomes the root.
In embryo structures, what is the epicotyl?
It is the stem tip and is above the attachment of the cotyledons.
In embryo structures, what is the hypocotyl?
It is the portion of the stem between the cotyledons and radicle.
What purpose do cotyledons serve?
They are leaf-like structures that provide nutrients for the embryo, and may or may not emerge aboveground.
What is germination?
The resumption of embryo growth after a period of dormancy.
What triggers germination?
Moisture, temperature or light cues.
In plants with hypogean development, the cotyledons appear where?
They remain below ground as the epicotyl elongates.
In plants with epigean development, the cotyledons appear where?
The cotyledons are forced above ground as the hypocotyl elongates.
What is primary growth?
The process through which plant cells are lengthened.
Simple fruit:
A fruit that develops from a single pistil.
Dehiscent:
Fruits that split open when they're mature, and examples include follicle, legume, silique and capsule fruits.
Indehiscent:
Fruits that do not split open at maturity, and nuts, samaras and achenes are examples.
Complex fruit:
Fruits that develop from more than one ovary.
Aggregate fruit:
Fruit that has many pistils. Strawberries have many seeds on the fruit that all came from one flower.
Multiple fruit:
Fruit that came from many flowers eventually fusing together into one. Think pineapple.
Seed:
A mature ovule containing an embruo and bound by a protective seed coat.
Seed Coat:
the outer boundary layer of a seed. It is developed from the integument.
Hilum:
The part where the seed is attached to the plant.
Radicle:
The part of an embryo in a seed that develops into a root.
Epicotyl:
The part of an embryo or seedling above the attachment point of the cotyledons.
Hypocotyl:
The portion of an embryo or seedling between the radicle and the cotyledons.
Cotyledon:
An embryo leaf (seed leaf) that usually either stores or absorbs food.
Pericarp:
Collective term for all the layers of a fruit wall.
Endosperm:
A food storage tissue that develops through divisions of the primary endosperm nucleus. It is difested by the sporophyte after fermination in some species or before maturation of the seed in other species.
Plumule:
The terminal bud of the embryo of a seed plant.
Coleoptile:
A protective sheath surrounding the emerging shoot of seedlings of the grass family.
Coleorhiza:
A protective sheath protecting the emerging radicle of seedlings of the grass familiy.
Germination:
The beginning of resumption of growth of a seed or spore.
Hypogean Development:
Plant growth where the cotyledons remain below ground as the epicotyl elongates.
Epigean Development:
Plant growth where the cotyledons are forced above ground as the hypocotyl elongates.
Primary Growth:
The process through which plant cells are lengthened.
Apical Meristem:
A meristem at the tip of a shoot or root.
Ground Meristem:
Meristem that produces all the primary tissues other than the epidermis and stele.
Procambium:
A tissue produced by the primary meristem that differentiates into primary xylem and phloem.
Protoderm:
The primary meristem that gives rise to the epidermis.