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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define neurulation
formation and closure of neural tube
describe the process of neurulation
notochord induces the overlying ectoderm to differentiate into neuroectoderm

neural plate folds --> rise of neural tube, open at anterior and posterior notopores
when does anterior notopore close?
posterior?
day 25 (failure --> anencephaly)
day 27 (failure --> spina bifida)
what does the anterior notopore become?
posterior?
brain
spinal cord
what is the lamina terminalis
what the anterior notopore becomes after it closes
what are the levels of AFP in NTD?
high
what are the levels of AFP in Down Syndrome?
loW
what does the lumen of hte neural tube become?
the ventricles (in brain)
central canal (in spinal cord)
what does the rostral part of neural tube become during week 4?
3 primary vesicles (prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhomboencephalon)
what secondary vesicles form from the prosencephalon?
telencephalon and diencephalon
what secondary vesicles does the mesencephalon become?
mesencephalon
what secondary vesicles does the rhombencephalon become?
metencephalon
myelencephalon
when do the 2ndary vesicles form in ns?
6 wks
types of glioblasts
CROATE
choroid plexus cells
radial glial cells
oligodendrocytes
astrocytes
tanycytes
ependymocytes
what do the choroid plexus cells do?
make CSF
bound together by tight junctions (= blood-CSF barrier)
what do radial glial cells do?
stain + for GFAP
guide migrating neuroblasts
what do oligodendrocytes do?
they make myelin for the neurons in the CNS
what do astrocytes do?
+ GFAP
surround capillaries with vascular feet
physical support
maintain BBB
what do tanycytes do?
located in wall of 3rd ventricle
transport substances from CSF to hypophyseal system
what do ependymocytes do?
they line the ventricles and central canal
what does the telencephalon develop into in adult?
cerebral hemispheres
caudate
putamen
amygdaloid
claustrum
lamina terminalis
olfactory bulbs
hippocampus
what does the diencephalon develop into in adult?
epithalamus
subthalamus
thalamus
hypothalamus
mamillary bodies
neurohypophysis
pineal gland
globus pallidus
retina
iris
ciliary body
CN II
optic chiasm
optic tract
what does the mesencephalon develop into in adult?
midbrain
what does the metencephalon develop into in adult?
pons
cerebellum
what does the myelenceohalon develop into in adult?
medulla
what forms the filum terminale
extension of pia mater
what/where is the cauda equina
collection of dorsal and ventral nerve roots that descend below the conus medularis
what does the filum terminale do?
anchors teh spinal cord to the coccyx
what is rathke's pouch?
what does it develop into?
evagination of ectoderm lining the roof of the primitive mouth
develops into the adenohypophysis
what does the neurohypophysis develop from?
evagination of neuroectoderm from diencephalon (specifically from hyothalamus)
where do the preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic arise from?
neuroectroderm (from basal plate of neural tube)
where do the postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons arise from?
neural crest cells
what are the CN that are parasympathetic/
III, VII, IX, X
what is spina bifida with rachischisis?
failure for the posterior notocord to fuse at all
open neural tube lying on the surface of the back
--> paralysis from level of defect, caudally
what is meningocele?
protrusion of meninges through skull defect
what is meningoencephalocele?
meninges and brain protrude through defect in skull
what is meningohydroencephalocele?
meninges, brain and CSF protrud through defect in skull
what is arnold-chiari malformation?
protrusion of cerebellar tonsils and medulla oblongata through foramen magnum
--> compression of CN IX, X, XII
presentation of arnold-chiari malformation?
stridor
dysphagia
diminished gag reflex
apnea
vocal cord paralysis
spastic dysphonnia
what is associated with arnold-chiari malformation?
thoracolumbar meningomyelocele
platybasia (bone malformation of base of skull)
malformation of occipitovertebral joint
hydrocephalus
what causes the hydrocephalus seen in arnold-chiari malformation
50% from aqueductal stenosis
what are the 2 types of noncommunicating hydrocephalus?
congenital aqueductal stenosis
dandy-walker syndrome
what causes congenital aqueductal stenosis?
x linked trait
cmv
toxo
what causes dandy walker syndrome?
what is seen
atresia of foramina of lushe, magendie, or monro
dilation of 4th ventricle
agenesis of cerebellar vermis
occipital meningocele
agenesis of splenium of corpus callosum
what is holoprosencephaly?
prosencephalon fails to cleave down midline such that telencephalon contains singule ventricular cavity
what is another name for holoprosencephaly/
arhinencephaly
what causes holoprosencephaly
can be seen in patau syndrome
FAS
sx of tethered spinal cord
weakness and sensory deficits in lower extremity
neurogenic bladder
what can be associated with tethered spinal cord
lipomatous tumors
lipomyelomeningocele
is the alar plate sensory or motor?
sensory
is the basal plate sensory or motor?
motor
what is the sulcus limitans?
separates the alar from the basal plate