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27 Cards in this Set

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What are symptoms of pregnancy?
1) nausea, 2) vomiting
What are some reasons why loss of vaginal blood might not always be a sign of pregnancy?
1) slight loss of blood from the implantation site of the blastocyst
2) leakage of the blood into the uterus from the disrupted lacunar networks in the implanted blastocyst
What is the result of vaginal bleeding not caused by menstruation?
If vaginal bleeding occurs during pregnancy, then this may be mistaken for a light period, resulting in the expected due date to be off
What does gastrulation literally translate to in Greek?
belly
What is the formation of gut, or the formation of the trilaminar embryo
gastrulation
What tissues derive from the embryonic ECTOderm layer?
1) CNS/PNS
2) epidermis
3) inner ear
4) eye
5) CT of the head
6) neural crest
What tissues derive from the embryonic ENDOderm layer?
1) epithelial linings of respiratory and digestive tracts
2) pancreas
What tissues derive from the embryonic MESOderm?
1) skeletal muscle
2) blood cells
3) smooth muscle
4) cardiovascular system
5) bones and cartilage
6) internal organs
What is the region of cell migration from the epiblast layer forming sequentially the two germ cell layers (endoderm and mesoderm)?
primitive streak
How does the primitive streak form?
the primitive streak results from proliferation and movement of cells of the epiblast
What is the region in the middle of the early embryonic disc epiblast from which the primitive streak extends caudally (tail)?
primitive node
What role do nodal cilia play in axis direction?
Nodal cilia establish the embryo left/right axis
What extends from the nodal epiblast?
axial process
What does the phrase "epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)" refer to?
this is when epithelial cells lose their organization and migrate/proliferate as mesenchymal cells
-they go from organized cellular layer to disorganized cellular layer
What is considered an organized cellular layer? disorganized?
epithelial cells; mesenchymal cells
What gives rise to all three germ layers in the embryo, the primordia of all its tissues and organs?
cells of the epiblast, through the process of gastrulation
What roles does the notochord have?
1) an early mechanical role in embryonic disc folding
2) a major signaling role in patterning surrounding embryonic tissue development
Which different tissues are patterned by the notochord's signaling role?
1) neural plate
2) neural tube
3) somites
4) endodermal organs
Name some unique features of the notochord.
1) it has its own sequence of development from a primitive axial process
2) it is a developmental feature not present in the adult anatomy
An initial epiblast hollow epithelial tube which extends in the midline from the primitive pit, and cranially in the embryonic disc (toward the oral membrane)
axial process
What embryonic structure is a transient communication between the amniotic cavity and the yolk sac cavity formed by the axial process?
neuroenteric canal
What structure allows communication between the amniotic cavity and the yolk sac cavity?
neuroenteric canal
What forms the neuroenteric canal?
axial process
What structure forms from the axial process merging with the endoderm layer?
the notochordal plate
What forms from the notochordal plate which then separates back into the mesoderm layer as a solid column of cells lying in the midline of the embryonic disc and running rostro-caudally (head to tail)?
the Notochord
Which way does the notochord run?
Rostro-caudally (from head to tail)
From where does the notochord form?
the notochordal plate