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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The superior end of the cardiac tube will develop into the:
Bulbus cordis
Which of the cardiac defects listed above derives from abnormal growth of the endocardial cushions?
Ostium primum atrial septal defect (ASD) with cleft mitral valve
Which of the cardiac defects listed above derives from abnormal septation of the truncus arteriosus?
Transposition of the great arteries (TGA)
Which of the cardiac defects listed above derives from persistence of a normal fetal structure?
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Which of the cardiac defects listed above is most likey to present with cyanosis in the neonatal period (first week of life)?
Transposition of the great arteries (TGA)
A child presents with harsh systolic ejection murmur over the cardiac apex and no cyanosis
Membraneous ventricular septal defect (VSD)
A child presents with a systolic heart murmur heard at the upper left sternal border and in the back to the left of the thoracic spine. Chest X-ray/electrocardiogram shows right ventricular enlargement and decreased density of the lung fields, suggesting decreased blood flow to the lungs.
Pulmonary artery stenosis
A child presents with blue-gray lips and skin; arterial blood gases show a decreased partial oxygen tension (PAO2) of 65.
Transposition of the great arteries (TGA)
A child presents with increased pulmonary blood flow and a "notched" aortic shadow on ches X-ray; the pulses are bounding in the upper extremities but decreased in the lower extremities
Coarctation of the aorta
A child presents with loud systolic heart murmur and palpable thrill over the precordium. The child is not cyanotic, but chest X-ray reveals increased pulmonary blood flow with fluid in the bases of the lungs. The main axis of the electrocardiogram, normally oriented leftward and inferior along the apex of the heart, is shifted strongly to the right. This right axis deviation suggests that the route of the conduction system from the artial septum along the atrioventricular node to the ventricles may have been interrupted.
Atrioventricular septal defect
A child is born with duodenal atresia and a heart murmur. He is hypotonic and has an unusual facial appearance with upward slanting palpebral fissues, anterverted nares, Brushfield spots, and flattened occiput. Which of the cardiac lesions above is most likely?
Atrioventricular septal defect
A child is born with a heart murmur and high blood pressure. She has a small jaw, low blood calcium, and has had seven upper respiratory infections in her first 3 months with failure to thrive. Which of the cardiac lesions above is most likely?
Coarctation of the aorta
A child has an "elfin" facial appearance with high blood calcium, loquacious personality, and learning disability. Which of the cardiac lesions above is most likely?
Aortic stenosis (AS)
A child has congenital heart disease with cyanotic spells, palatal dyscoordination with abnormal swallowing and speech, and a documented chromosome 22 deletion by cytogenetic analysis. Which of the cardiac lesions above is most likely?
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
A newborn female has puffy feet with apparent collections of fluid on their dorsal surfaces. She also has extra skin folds on her neck and a broad appearing chest. Which of cardiac lesions above is most likely?
Coarctation of the aorta
An infant presents with poor feeding, irritability, increased sweating while feeding and sleeping, and poor weight gain (failure to thrive). On examination, there is tachypnea and a loud systolic heart murmur (grade 3/6). The child also has subtle anomalies including a broad nasal root, narrow palpebral fissures, abnormal external ears, and a small jaw. Though not cyanotic, the child does swallow poorly, regurgitating formula through the nose and out the sides of the mouth. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the physical findings?
Ventricular septal defect
A child with tetralogy of Fallot, feeding problems, and an abnormal face with prominent nose, malformed ears, and small jaw suffers from recurrent pneumonia and multiple viral infections. Review of the neonatal chest X-ray reveals that there was no thymus. Which of the following laboratory studies are indicated?
Karyotype with FISH to determine whether chromosome 22 is partially deleted.
The cardiovascular system derives from:
Lateral plate mesoderm
The head fold places the heart:
Ventral to the foregut, caudal to the oropharyngeal membrane
Blood flow through the primitive heart is best described as:
Cardinal vein to sinus venosus to heart to truncus arteriosus to aortic arches and aorta.
The endocardial cushions fuse to divide the atrioventricular canal into:
Right and left portions
The gap between the septum secundum and endocardial cusions is the:
Foramen ovale
The bulbar and truncal ridges grow to separate the:
Aorta and pulmonary trunk
The arch of the aorta is formed from the:
Left fourth aortic arch
A portion of the sixth aortic arch contributes to the:
Ductus arteriosus
An infant presents with poor feeding, irritablilty, increased sweating while feeding and sleeping, and poor weight gain (failure to thrive). On examination there is tachypnea and a loud systolic heart murmur (grade 3/6) The child also has subtle anomalies inculding a broad nasal root, narrow palpebral fissures, abnormal external ears, and a small jaw. Though not cyanotic, the child does swallow poorly, regurgating formula through the nose and out of the sides of the mouth. What is the most likely explanation of the physical findings:
ventricular septal defect
A child with tetralogy of fallot, feeding problems, and an abnormal face with prominent nose, malformed ears, and a small jaw suffers from recurrent pneumonia and multiple viral infections. Review of the neonatal chest x-ray reveals that there was no thymus. Which of the following labratory studies are indicated:
Karyotype with FISH to detirmine whether choromosome 22 is partially deleted.
The cardiovascular system derives from:
Lateral plate mesoderm
The head fold places the heart:
Ventral to the foregut, caudal to the oropharyngeal membrane.
Blood flow through the primitive heart is best described as:
cardinal vein to the sinus venosus to heart to truncus arteriosus to aortic arches and aorta
The endocardial cushions fuse to divide the atrioventricular canal into:
right and left portions
The gap between the septum secundum and endocardial cushions is the:
foramen ovale
The bulbar and truncal ridges grow to seperate the:
aorta and pulmonary trunk
The arch of the aorta is formed from the:
left fourth aortic arch
A portion of the sixth aortic arch contributes to the:
ductus arteriosus