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44 Cards in this Set

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Arch 1 Nerve - Maxillary Process
V2 (Trigeminal Nerve)

Also provides sensory innervation to nasal cavity and hard palate muscosa
Arch 1 Bones and Ligaments - Maxillary Process
From Maxillary Cartilage: Greater wing of Spehnoid Bone, Incus

From Ossification of dermal mesenchyme: Maxilla, Zygomatic, Squamous part of temporal, Palatine, Vomer, Pterygoid Laminae
Arch 1 Vascular/Aortic Arches - Maxillary Process
Largely disapears, except maxillary a. (and maybe external carotid a. ?)
Arch 1 - Nerve - Mandibular Process
V3 (Trigeminal Nerve)

Also sensory innervation of oral cavity and anterior 2/3 of tongue, floor of the mouth
Arch 1 - Bones and Ligaments - Mandibular Process
From Meckel's Cartilage: Malleus, Anterior ligament of malleus, Sphenomandibular ligament

From Ossification of dermal mesenchyme: Mandible, Tympanic part of temboral
What are the two parts of the first arch?
The Maxillary Process and the Mandibular Process
Arch 2 Nerve
VII (Facial Nerve)

Also taste buds on anterior 2/3 of tongue, hard palate
Arch 2 Muscles
Muscles of facial expression, Stapedius, Post. Belly of Digastric, Stylohyoid
Arch 2 Bones/Ligaments
Reichert's Cartilage:

Stapes
Styloid process
Stylohyoid ligament
Lesser horn of hyoid
Superior part of hyoid body
Arch 2 Vascular
Proximal part disappears

Distal part - Stapedial artery (embryonic)
Arch 3 Nerve
IX (Glossopharyngeal nerve)

Also sensory innervation of Pharyngeal cavity mucosa
Posterior 1/3 of tongue
Arch 3 Muscles
Stylopharyngeus (elevates pharynx during swallowing)
Arch 3 Bones/Ligaments
Greater horn of hyoid
Inferior part of hyoid body
Arch 3 Vascular
Proximal part - Common carotid a.

Distal part - Proximal part of internal carotid a.
Arch 4 Nerve
X (Vagus) - Pharyngeal branch and superior laryngeal branch
Arch 4 Muscles
(Muscles of Pharynx)
Constrictors, Palatopharyngeus, Levator veli palatini, Musculus uvulae, Palatoglossus

Cricothyroid

(Muscles of Soft Palate)
Arch 4 Bones/Ligaments
Laryngeal carilages (except epiglottis)

Together with Arch 6
Arch 4 Vascular
Left - Part of aortic arch

Right - Proximal part of right subclavian a.
What happens to Arch 5?
Either never forms or quickly regresses
Arch 6 Nerve
X (Vagus) - Recurrent laryngeal branch
Arch 6 Muscles
Intrinsic muscles of the larynx (except for cricothyroid which is from Arch 4)

Striated muscle of esophagus (voluntary)
Arch 6 Bones/Ligaments
Laryngeal Cartilages (except epiglottis)

Together with Arch 4
Arch 6 Vascular
Proximal Parts - Proximal parts of pulmonary arteries

Distal Parts - Right disappears, left becomes ligamentum arteriousum

Why the reacurrent laryngeal nerves are different on each side
Arch 1 Muscles
Muscles of Mastication
Mylohyoid
Anterior Belly of digastric
Tensor veli palatini
Tensor tympani

(All innervated by V3)
Which aortic arches regress?
1, 2 and 5
What are the reacurrent laryngeal nerves related to?
Right: Right subclavian a.

Left: Aortic arch, Ligamentum arteriousum

Different due to Arch 6 developement
Groove 1
External auditory meatus (external ear canal)
Outer epithelium of eardrum (from membrane that separates pouch from groove)
Pouch 1
Retain connection with lumen of pharynx, becomes tympanic (middle ear) cavity.

Tympanic cavity
Mastoid antrum
Auditory tube (connection with pharynx)
Inner epithelium of eardrum
Groove 2
Cervical sinus (disappears)
Pouch 2
Palatine tonsil develops adjacent to.

Intratonsillar cleft/sinus (tonsilar fossa)
Surfaces epithelium and lining of crypts of palatine tonsil
Groove 3
Cervical sinus (disappears)
Pouch 3
Both migrate caudally

Dorsal part - Inferior parathyroid gland (usually separates from thymus gland and resides posterior to thyroid gland)

Ventral part - Thymus gland
Groove 4
Cervical sinus (disappears)
Pouch 4
Dorsal part - superior parathyroid gland (doesn't migrate as far as pouch 3)

Ventral Part - Ultimobranchial body (in thyroid gland) (Become Parafollicular or C Cells - secret calcitonin hormone)
Pouch 5
When present is rudimentary and become part of Pouch 4
Which grooves/pouches never form?
Groove 5, Groove 6, Pouch 6

Sometimes Pouch 5
What is the first appearance of the tongue?
Median tongue bud - swelling in the midline which lies over the 1st pair of arches. Forms no adult derivative.

Forms in the floor of the pharynx.

Later pair of distal tongue buds form on either side, grow, fuse, cover up median tongue buds.
What forms the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
The distal tongue buds.
What forms the posterior/pharyngeal 1/3 of the tongue?
Hypobranchial/Hypopharyngeal eminence. Lies in midline over 3rd and 4th pairs of arches. (Mostly 3rd arch.)

Grows forward, meets distal tongue buds.
Sensory innervation to tongue
Cranial nerves V3 (anterior)

posteriour - IX (mainly), X (way in back).

Nothing from VII because arch 2 doesn't contribute to mucosa of tongue.
Muscular innervation of tongue
XII (hypoglossal), grows down with myboblasts.
Muscles of tongue
From Occipital Myotomes, not arches, except for palatoglossus.
Thyroid Gland
First endocrine gland to develop, 4th week. Not from an arch but related to floor of pharynx.

Thickening of endoderm called thyroid diverticulum. For a while Thyroid diverticulum retains its connection with the floor for the pharynx, forming the thyroglossal duct.

At 5 weeks of development, the distal end of the TD expands and begins to form a thyroid gland.

At 7 weeks, the adult thyroid has taken shape: two lateral lobes connected by a bar of tissue (isthmus). The connection of the TD had with the floor of the pharynx regresses (the thyroglossal duct atrophies), and sometimes the lower end of the duct persists. If this happens, the thyroglossal duct gives rise to the pyramidal lobe (small, slender strand of thyroid tissue projecting up from the isthmus – a retention of the lower end of the lower end of the thyroglossal duct).
Derivatives of Neural Crest Cells
All the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system

Medulla of the adrenal gland

All of the Dorsal root ganglion of the spinal cord

Cartilages of at least the 1st 3 pairs of pharyngeal arches.

Important: NCC form the first 3 PA cartilages. The first arch is unique in that certain membrane bones form in relation to this arch. Bones develop either as a cartilage precursor (preform in cartilage and later ossify like the PA cartilages) or they ossify directly through mesenchyme (don’t go through cartilaginous stage). In the case of the first PA, the maxilla and mandible bones ossify directly from the mesenchyme.