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95 Cards in this Set

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Hox mutation
appendages in wrong locations
FGF gene
lengthening of limbs
Wnt-7 gene
proper organization along dorsal ventral axis
Sonic hedgehog gene
involved in patterning along ant post axis
Extremely susceptible to teratogens during
embryonic period- wks 3-8
when organogenesis occurs
Heart begins to beat
week 4
also upper and lower limb buds begin to form
Fetal movement
week 8- start of fetal period
fetus looks like a baby
Alar plate
dorsal, sensory
Basal plate
ventral, motor
Notochord becomes
nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disk in adults
Precursor to ectoderm
epiblast
invaginates to form primitive streak
give rise to intraembryonic mesoderm and part of endoderm
Craniopharyngioma
benign Rathke's pouch tumor with cholesterol crystals, calcifications
Neuroectoderm
CNS, brain, retina
Neural crest
think PNS and non neural structures nearby
Mesodermal defects=
VACTERL
Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal defects, Limb defects (bone and muscle)
Teratogens before week 3
all or none effect
Teratogens after week 8
growth and function affected
Truncus arteriosus
ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
Bulbus cordis
RV and smooth parts (outflow tract) of LV and RV
Primitive venticle
trabeculated LV and RV
Primitive atria
trabeculated LA and RA
Left horn of sinus venosus
Coronary sinus
Right horn of sinus venosus
Smooth part of RA
Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein
SVC
Aorticopulmonary septum derivative of
Neural crest!!
Failure of truncal and bulbar ridges to spiral
Transposition of great vessels
Skewed AP septum development
TOF
Partial AP septum development
Persistent TA
Eisenmenger's syndrome
membranous ventricular septal defect, causes initial L to R shunting, which then becomes R to L shunting
Septum secundum contains
permanent opening- foramen ovale
Septum primum forms
valve of foramen ovale
Septum secundum and septum primum fuse to form
Atrial septum
Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in
Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
Yolk sack 3-8 week, Liver 6-30 week, Spleen 9-28 week, Bone marrow 28 wk onward
Helps close PDA
Indomethacin
Keeps PDA open
Prostaglandins
UmbiLical arteries remnant
mediaL umbilical ligaments
AllaNtois (urachus) remnant
mediaN umbilical ligament
Umbilical vein remnant
ligamentum teres hepatis
contained in falciform ligament
Forebrain
prosencephalon, gives rise to telencephalon- cerebral hemispheres and lat ventricles- and diencephalon- thalamus and third ventricle
Midbrain
Mesencephalon- gives rise to midbrain and aqueduct of sylvius
Hindbrain
Rhombencephalon, gives rise to metencephalon- pons, cerebellum and upper part of fourth ventricle- and myelencephalon- medulla and lower part of fourth ventricle
Neural tube defects caused by
neuropores fail to fuse in 4th week, persistent connection btn amniotic cavity and spinal canal
SYringomyelia
enlargement of central canal of spinal cord, crossing fibers of spinothalamic tract hit first, cape like bilat loss of pain and temp sensation in upper extremities, touch intact
most common in C8-T1
ass with chiari II malformation
Chiari II malformation
cerebellar tonsillar herniation through foramen magnum, aqueductal ttenosis and hydrocephaly
Dandy Walker malformation
large post fossa, absent cerebellar vermis, cystic enlargement of 4th ventricle, can lead to hydrocephalus and spina bifida
1st aortic arch derivative
part of MAXillary artery
1st arch is MAXimal
2nd aortic arch derivative
stapedial and hyoid arteries
3rd aortic arch derivative
common Carotid artery and prox part of int carotid artery
C is 3rd letter in alphabet
4th aortic arch derivative
on left, aortic arch
on right, prox part of right subclavian artery
6th aortic arch derivative
prox part of pulm aa and ductus arteriosus
Brachial apparatus
CAP
Clefts- ectoderm
Arches- mesoderm and NC
Pouches- endoderm
1st brachial cleft develops into
external auditory meatus
Treacher Collins syndrome
1st brachial arch neural crst fails to migrate
get mandibular hypoplasia, facial abnormalities
Persistance of 3rd brachial cleft and pouch
Congenital pharyngo-cutaneous fistula, fistula between tonsillar area, cleft in lateral neck
1st brachial arch derivatives
meckel's cartilage, mandible, malleus, incus, mm of mastication, CN V2 and V3, Chew
2nd brachial arch derivatives
Reicherts cartilage, stapes,s tyloid, lesser horn of hyoid, stylohyoid, smm of facial expression, CN VII, Smile
3rd brachial arch derivatives
greater horn of hyoid, stylopharyngeus, CN IX, swallow styl-ishly
4th and 6th brachial arch derivatives
thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids, corniculate, cuneiform, 4th- cricothyroid, pharyngeal constrictors, levator veli palatini, 6th- all intrinsic mm of larynx except cricothyroid, CN X, 4 Simply Swallow, 6 Speak
Aberrant development of 3rd and 4th brachial pouches
DiGeorge syndrome- cell deficiency- thymic aplasia and hypocalcemia- failure of parathyroid development
Brachial pouch derivatives
Ear, tonsils, bottom-to-top
1- ear
2- tonsils
3 dorsal- bottom for inferior parathyroids
3 ventral- Thymus
4- top for superior parathyroids
MEN 2A
mutation of germline RET- neural crest cells
adrenal medulla- pheochromocytoma
parathyroid- tumor- 3rd/4th pharyngeal pouch
Parafollicular cells- medullary thyroid ca- derived from NCC, ass with 4th/5th pharyngeal pouches
Muscles are dervied from
occipital myotomes
Tongue development
1st brachial arch forms ant 2/3- sensation V3 and taste VII
3rd and 4th arches form post 1/3- sensation and taste IX, extreme post X
motor inn XII
MC ectopic thyroid tissue site is
Tongue
2nd -4th brachial clefts form
temp cervical sinuses
if persist, get branchial cleft cyst within lateral neck, does not move with swallowing
Thyroglossal duct cyst
in midline neck, will move with swallowing
thyroid connects to tongue by thyroglossal duct, nmlly disappears but may persist and form cyst
Foregut
pharynx to duodenum
Midgut
duodenum to transverse colon
Hindgut
distal transverse colon to rectum
Duodenal atresia
failure to recanalize
trisomy 21
Jejunal, ileal and colonic atresia
due to vascular accident
apple peel atresia
Midgut development
6th week- midgut herniates through umbilical ring
10th week- returns to abd cavity and rotates around SMA
Omphalocele
persistence of herniation of abd contents into umbilical cord, covered by peritoneum
Gastroschisis
extrusion of abd contents through abd folds, not covered by peritoneum
When do ventral and dorsal parts of pancreas fuse
8 weeks
if not- get pancreas divisum
Spleen arises from
dorsal mesentery- hence is mesodermal in origin
supplied by artery of foregut- celiac artery
What is Potter's syndrome caused by
malformation of ureteric bud
get bilat renal agenesis, oligohydramnios, limb and facial deformities, pulm hypoplasia
Most common site of obstruction (hydronephrosis) in fetus
ureteropelvic junction with kidney, last to canalize
Ureteric bud
derived from caudal end of mesonephros, gives rise to ureter, pelvises, calyces, collecting ducts
canalized by 10th week
Metanephric mesenchyme
forms glomerulus, renal tubules to DCT
Metanephros
permament kidneys, first appear 5th week gestation, nephrogenesis continues through 32-36 wks
Mesonephros
interim kidney in 1st trimester, later contributes to male genital system
Horseshoe kidney
inferior poles of kidneys fuse, as they ascend get trapped under IMA, remain low in abd
ass with Turners
What produces testis determining factor
SRY gene on Y chromosome- testes develop
Mesonephric duct structures
SEED- seminal vesicles, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens
Paramesonephric duct structures
fallopian tube, uterus, upper 1/3 vagina
lower 2/3 from urogenital sinus
Bicornuate uterus results from
incomplete fusion of paramesopnephric ducts, ass with urinary tract abnormalities and infertility
No sertoli cell or lack of anti mullerian hormone
develop both male and female internal, male external genitalia
5 alpha reductase def
develop male internal, ambiguous external genitalia until puberty
Genital tubercle
F- glans clitoris, vestibular bulbs
M- glans penis, corpus cavernosum and spongiosum
Urogenital sinus
F- greater vestibular glands, urethral and paraurethral glands
M- bulbourethral glands, prostate gland
Urogenital folds
F- labia minora
M- ventral shaft of penis (penile urethra)
Labioscrotal swelling
F- labia majora
M- scrotum
Hypospadias
abnormal opening of penile urethra on inf ventral side of penis due to failure of urethral folds to close
Epispadias
abnml opening of penile urethra on superior dorsal side of penis due to faulty positioning of genital tubercle
ass with exstrophy of bladder