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130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Notochord/axial mesoderm forms
induces ectoderm to form neural plate and then tube
becomes nucleus pulposas
Nucleus pulposa is from
notochord/axial mesoderm
What induces neurolation?
- notochord/axial mesoderm
What does ectoderm form?
- body surface
- nervous tissue
Body surface comes from?
- ectoderm
Nervous tissue comes from?
- ectoderm
Paraxial mesoderm forms?
- somites
Somites come from?
- paraxial mesoderm
Intermediate mesoderm forms?
-urinary and reproductive systems
What forms the urogenital system?
intermediates mesoderm
Lateral plate mesoderm forms?
- body cavity linings
- connective and muscular tissue
- organs/structures of urogenital system
What forms the body cavity linings?
- lateral plate mesoderm
What forms connective and muscular tissue?
- lateral plate mesoderm
What forms the organs/structures of urogenital system?
- lateral plate mesoderm
What do the neural crest cells form?
- bones of face/skull
- connective tissue
- ganglia
- C cells
- autonomic ganglia (peripheral neurons
- melanocytes
- leptomeninges
- septum separates pulmonary/aortic circulation
- dermis of face/neck
- Schwann cells
- adrenal medulla
What forms bones of face/skull?
- neural crest cells
What forms connective tissue?
- neural crest cells
What forms ganglia?
- neural crest cells
What forms C cells?
- neural crest cells
What forms autonomic ganglia (peripheral neurons)?
- neural crest cells
What forms melanocytes?
- neural crest cells
what forms leptomeninges?
- neural crest cells
What forms the septum to separate pulmonary/aortic circulation?
- neural crest cells
What forms dermis of face/neck?
- neural crest cells
What forms Schwann cells?
- neural crest cells
What forms adrenal medulla?
- neural crest cells
What forms the visceral lining of the body cavity? the parietal lining of the body cavity?
- lateral plate mesoderm
What does the septum primum form?
- ostium primum (shunt that degenerates)
- ostium secundum (valve of the ovale foramen)
What does the septum secundum form?
- foramen ovale?
Which aortic arch artery does not form?
- 5th
What does the 1st aortic arch form?
- mainly nothing
- small part as maxillary arteries
What does the 2nd aortic arch form?
- mainly nothing
- small part as hyoid and stapedial arteries
What does the 3rd aortic arch form?
- common carotids
What does the 4th aortic arch form?
- right subclavian/brachiocephalic
- arch of aorta
What does the 6th aortic arch form?
- pulmonary arteries
- ductus arteriosus
Name the circulation of fetal blood if it does not go through the right ventricle?
- left umbilical vein
- ductus venosus
- right atrium
- foramen ovale
- left atrium
- systemic
- umbilical arteries
What is the difference in fetal circulation if the blood does go into the right ventricle?
- goes to pulmonary artery
- shunted to aorta via ductus arteriosus
What happens to fetal circulation postnatally?
- septum forms between left and right atrium- fossa ovale
- ductus arteriosus= ligamentum arteriosum
- ductus venosus- ligamentum venosus
- umbilical arteries- medial umbilical ligaments
- umbilical vein- round ligament
What is the first stage of lung development?
- pseudoglandular (5-17 weeks)
= lung buds off foregut, forms left and right branch
= splanchnic mesoderm forms vessels around terminal sacs
What is the second stage of lung development?
- Canalicular (16-25 wks)
= bronchioles form, vascularization
What is the 3rd stage of lung development?
- terminal sac period (24 wks-birth)
= type 1 alveolar cells~ gas exchange
= type 2 alveolar cells~ surfactant produced
What is the 4th stage of lung development?
- alveolar (birth~ 8 yrs)
= most alveolar development
What are the 4 structures that contribute to the development of the diaphragm?
- septum transversum
- pleuroperitoneal folds
- muscular ingrowth of body wall
- dorsal mesentery of esophagus
Which portion of the somite gives rise to the vertebral arch?
- sclerotome
What are teh 3 parts of the somite?
- sclerotome
- myotome
- dermatome
What is the most common defect related to teh sclerotome?
- spina bifida
What are the 2 portions of the myotome?
- epimere
- hypomere
Which portion of the myotome gives rise to the deep muscles of the back?
- epimere
What spinal cords does the epimere portion of the myotome contain?
- dorsal primary ramus
What spinal cord does the hypomere portion of the myotome contain?
- ventral primary ramus
What are the 2 structures that develop the upper lip?
- medionasal prominence (medially)
- maxillary prominence (laterally)
What is the most common defect that occurs when there is a problem with the fusion of the medionasal and maxillary prominence?
- cleft lip
What are the 5 facial prominences?
- frontonasal (only unpaired)
- maxillary
- medionasal
- lateral nasal
- mandibular
What are the 2 structures that give rise to the is the primary plate?
- intermaxillary segment
- maxillary prominence
What is the primary palate?
- intermaxillary segment
What does the intermaxillary segment fuse with?
- medialnasal prominence
What are the 2 parts of the neurocranium?
- carilaginous
- membranous
What are the 2 types of ossification?
- endocondrial
- intramembranous
Gives examples of endocondrial ossification of the neurocranium
- base of skull: sella turcica, base occipital bone, petrous part of temportal, ethmoid, sphenoid
Give examples of intramembranous ossification of the neurocranium
- flat bones: parietal, occipital, frontal
What structure develops from teh first pharyngeal cleft?
- external auditory meatus
- lateral surface of eardrum
What structures develpoe from the 2nd pharyngeal cleft?
- nothing
What structures develop from teh 3rd pharyngeal cleft?
- nothing
What structures develop from the 4th pharyngeal cleft?
- nothing
What tissue do the pharyngeal arches come from?
- mesoderm
What tissue do the pharyngeal grooves come from?
- ectoderm
What tissue do the pharyngeal pouches come from?
- endoderm
What does the first pharyngeal pouch develop into?
- eustachian tube
- medial surface of eardrum
- primitive tympanic cavity
What does the 2nd pouch develop into?
- palatine tonsils
What does the 3rd pouch develop into?
- inferior parathyroid
- thymus
What does the 4th pharyngeal pouch develop into?
- superior parathyroid
- ultimobrachial body
What nerve/muscles associated with the 1st arch?
- CN5
- muscles of mastication
What muscles/nerve is associated with the 2nd pharyngeal arch?
- CN7
- muscles facial expression
What muscles/nerves associated with the 3rd pharyngeal arch?
- CN9
- stylopharyngeal/ swallowing
What muscles/nerves associated with the 4th and 6th pharyngeal arch?
- CN10
- larynx muscles
Where is the thyroid originally developed?
- Foramen cecum
What are the 3 strucutres derived from the hepatic diverticulum and which way do they rotate?
- Liver, gallbladder, ventral pancreatic bud
- clockwise
Which part of midgut loop returns to teh abdominal cavity first?
- cranial/cephalic
What does the cranial end of the midgut become?
- jejunum and ileum
What does the caudal end of the midgut become?
- large intestine
How many degrees does the midgut loop rotate and how much of this is during the herniation into the umbilicus?
- 270
90
What are the 3 strucutres derived from the ventral pancreatic bud?
- uncinate process
- proximal pancreatic duct
- inferior portion of pancreatic head
What structures develop in the male from the mesonephric duct?
- vas deferens
- epididymus
- seminal vesicles
What structures develop in both male and female from the mesonephric duct?
- trigone
- uteric bud
What does the uteric bud form?
- collecting ducts/ureters
What structure gives rise to the nephron?
- metanephric blastema
What type of tissue surrounds the uteric bud and is induced to form by the uteric bud?
- intermediate mesoderm
What gives rise to the seminiferous tubules
- medullary sex chords
What structures gives rise ot the female follicular cells?
- cortical sex chords
What are the 3 sources for indifferent gonad
- primordial germ cells
- proliferating solomic epithelium
- mesenchyme
What structures does the paramesonephric ducts create?
- uterus
- fallopian tubes
- cervix
- upper vagina
The paramesonephric ducts are lateral to?
- mesonephric ducts
The cranial ends of the paramesonephric ducts?
- open to abdominal cavity
The distal ends of the paramesonephric ducts?
- fused to urogenital sinus
Why do the paramesonephric ducts degenerate in males?
- anti-mullerian hormone
What do the urethral folds give rise to in men?
- incorporated into shaft of penis
- penile urethra
What do the urethral folds give rise to in women?
- labia minora
What does the genital tubercle give rise to in men?
- glands and body/shaft of penis
What does the genital tubercle give rise to in women?
- clitoris
What does the lateral scrotal swellings give rise to in men?
- scrotum
What does the lateral scrotal swellings give rise to in women?>
- labia majora
What forms the median umbilical ligament?
- urachus
What does the allantois become?
- urachus
What does the urachus become?
- ligamentous and extends from teh bladder to the umbilicus
What are the 4 structures of the pharyngeal arches?
- skeletal structure
- musculature
- cranial nerve
- artery
What is unique about the 1st pharyngeal arch?
- has 2 parts
----maxillary (dorsal) and mandibular process (ventral)
What cartilage is associated with the 1st pharyngeal arch?
- meckel's cartilage
What cartilage is associated with the 2nd pharyngeal arch?
- reichert's cartilage
What is the skeletal structure/cartilage associated with the 3rd pharyngeal arch?
- greater horns/cornu
- inferior hyoid
What is the skeletal structure/cartilage associated with the 4th pharyngeal arch?
- laryngeal cartilages
What is the skeletal structure that is associated with the 6th pharyngeal arch?
- laryngeal cartilages
What are teh 2 regions of teh skull?
- neurocranium (brain skeleton)
- viscerocranium (face skeleton)
What is mesenchyme made from?
- neural crest cells
- parenchyma
What are teh 2 regions of teh viscerocranium?
- carilagionous
- membranous
The cartilaginous part of the viscerocranium develops from which pharyngeal arches?
- 1st, 2nd, 3rd
What is the nasal pit located between?
- lateral nasal and medial nasal prominences
What creates the anulous pulposa?
- axial mesoderm
Where does dermis come from?
- paraxial mesoderm
Cyst forms on the side of the next, on top of the SEM, where does it come from?
- pharyngeal cleft
Cyst forms in the midline of the neck, near the hyoid, where does it come from?
- thyroglossal duct
What is Meckel's diverticulum?
- incomplete obliteration of the vitelline duct, so it remains attached to the anterior abdominal wall
What is omphalocele?
- defect in the anterior abdominal wall, resulting in permanent hernation of the midgut at the base of the umbilical cord
What is Hirschsprung's disease?
- colon is dilated b/c absense of neurons in colon wall b/c no neural crest cell migration. there is not peristalsis to move intestinal contents
What is an imperforate anus?
- absense of normal anal opening
- likely b/c abnormal development of urorectal septum, so incomplete separation of cloaca
- communication btw rectum and vagina or rectum and urethra is common
What happens in oligohydraminos?
- too little amniotic fluid
- lungs are underdeveloped
- renal agenesis/ureter obstruction leads to too little amniotic fluid
What is hypospadias
- failure urogenital folds to fuse in males
- opening of the external urethral orifice on ventral surface of glans penis or body
What is congenital inguinal hernia?
- vaginal process remains open in peritoneal cavity
- loop of intesting herniates into scrotum/labia majora
What causes an upper cleft lip?
- no fusion between the palatine shelves and the intermaxillary segments
What causes a lower cleft lip?
- right and left mandibular swellings don't fuse
What causes a cleft palate?
- sides of the palatine shelves don't fuse