Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
kidney forms from
intermediate mesoderm
what does cloaca contribute to?
bladder and urethra
kidney development: 3 stage, with which structure
nephrogenic cords of intermediate mesoderm
where do nephrogenic cords form
from cervical – sacral segments
1st stage kidney development begins when
3rd week
stage name, & what develops
proenephric phase – proenephric vessicles near cervical segments – vessicles link, form proenephric duct
duct grows where?
reaches and opens into cloaca
during 4th week, what happens to duct?
proenephros and cervical proenephric duct degenerate
second phase of kidney development
mesonephric – remaining proenephric duct now called mesonephric, is opposite thoracic/lumbar segment
what develops in second stage
mesonephric tubules, which open into mesonephric duct
what do remnants of the second stage contribute to
male reproductive system
name of third development stage of kidneys
where and when does third stage develop
beginning in 5th week, at caudal mesonephric duct
first sign of third stage
ureteric bud appears
ureteric bud forms what?
grows into sacral portion of nephrogenic cord, and is called metanephric mass of mesoderm
metanephric mass does what?
tells ureteric bud to branch
what two structures form the kidneys
ureteric bud and metanephric mass
ureteric bud does what
collects urine
ureteric bud becomes
ureter, renal pelvis, calyces, collecting ducts/tubules
metenephric mass becomes what
glomerulus, nephrons (creating urine)
metanephric mass forms what around ureteric bud
metanephric mass forms condensation of masses of mesoderm cells around branches of the ureteric bud, called a TISSUE CAP
tissue cap forms what
metanephric vessicles: twist and elongate
twisting, elongation of tissue cap forms
loop of henle, convoluted tubules
after twisting, what invades metanephric vessicle, where?
blood vessel – invades blind end of metenephric vessicle – creates BOWMAN’s CAPSULE
following vessel invasion, what occurs
tissue breakdown between metenephric vessicle & ureteric buds – urine formed can drain through ureter
derived from ureteric bud?
urine collection system: ureters, pelvis, maj/min calyces, collecting ducts
derived from metanephric mass
urine production system: nephrons, (corpuscles, prox/distal conv. tubules, loops of Henle)
if metanephric mass doesn’t link up with collecting syst?
will make urine, but nowhere for it to go: kidney cyst
kidney filled with cysts called
multi-cystic kidney
if multi-cystic kidney –why? how often? treatment?
failure of ureteric bud vessicles to meet with metanephric mass, or atretic (blocked) ureter. usually only one kidney, about 1/4000 deliveries, leave kidney alone: will involute and disappear: body will use other kidney
recessive polycystic kidney disease
autosomal recessive, effects both kidneys, massive kidneys, filled with vessicles:take up normal healthy tissue space. collecting tubules are widely dilated. Children usually die. treatment: dialysis or transplant.
coordinated kidney development depends on reciprocal interaction of what?
ureteric bud and metanephric mass – interdependent structures
metenephric mass triggers outgrowth of? how?
sends chemical signals to mesonephric duct to send out ureteric bud & undergo branching
ureteric bud triggers?
sends out survival signals to metanephric mesoderm mass so that kidney tubules and tissue cap survive, nephrons form (condensation of metanephric mass, and tubologenesis)
if no interaction between metanephric mass and ureteric bud, what occurs
tissues will degenerate
nephrons form but don’t join ureteric bud branches – result?
nephrons can’t drain, may form cysts
why do kidneys ascend
probably differential growth – not well understood
metanephric kidney appears where first?
opposite sacral segments
initially, what direction do kidney pelves face?
for kidneys to ascend, what occurs
medial rotation, so hilus faces medially, differential growth causes ascent
during ascent, what happens with blood supply
old vessels degenerate, new vessels serve kidneys
vessels that don’t degenerate during kidney ascent are?
accessory renal vessels
ectopic kidney can be
anywhere along line of ascent that is not ‘correct’ position
if nephrogenic cords fuse, results?
kidneys will fuse, probably won’t be able to ascent
if kidneys fused, which artery will prevent ascent
interior mesenteric artery
name four abnormalities that ureteric bud-metanephric mass interaction difficulties may cause
bifid ureter (can remain separate right to bladder), supernumary kidneys (if branches develop far apart, can have multiple kidneys), crossed renal ectopia (ureters both grow on one side, so one kidney is crossed over), renal agenesis (metanephric mass and ureteric bud fail to interact – kidney doesn’t develop)
contributes to amniotic fluid volume
fetal urine
how is amniotic fluid volume controlled
fetus swallows it, is absorbed through fetal intestine into fetal circulation, then across placenta to maternal circulation: is cleared through maternal kidneys
purpose of amniotic fluid
cushion, allows fetus to grow, unconstrained limb movement, practice breathing with fluid
practice breathing promotes
growth/development of lungs
too little amniotic fluid is
oligohydramnios – causes bilateral renal agenesis (kidneys don’t develop)
symptom of too little amniotic fluid
too small for dates
if too little amniotic fluid – fetal characteristics
potters face: flat face/nose, epicanthic folds nr. eyes
if bilateral renal agenesis, what happens
die from pulmonary hypoplasia – lungs don’t develop
oligohydramnios characteristics
can’t flex limbs (not enough room) tendons too short, chest, lungs not developed, lungs not developed, don’t produce urine: usually die.
why does oligohydramnios occur?
fetus can’t produce urine – urine doesn’t go into amniotic fluid, so less amniotic fluid (req’d for dev.)
def. oligohydramnios
anything that interferes w/ urine flow to amniotic sac
causes of oligohydramnios
bilateral polycystic kidney disease, bilateral renal agenesis, premature rupture of amniotic membrane (leakage of fluid), posterior urethral valve (remnant of urogenital membrane)
bladder develops from
upper part of urogenital sinus expansion
bladder is continuous with
which ducts and tubes join the urogenital sinus
ureters, and mesonephric ducts (common excretory ducts)
when kidneys ascend, ureters?
are drawn cranially (ascend w/kidneys)
upper part of urogenital sinus becomes
lower part of urogenital sinus becomes
allantois forms?
uracus (when involutes) umbilicus-bladder remnant
uracus forms?
fibrous median umbilical ligament
if problem with allantois/uracus closing?
uracal fistula (open – urine out of umbilicus), allantois sinus (if still open near umbilicus), allantois diverticulum (if still open off bladder), cyst (if midway)
problem with bladder development
extrophy – mesoderm doesn’t separate bladder from sinus, body wall tears, or ureter opens to body surface: result is similar – bladder open to body wall