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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lower Respiratory system develops?
Develops as an out pocketing from cranial foregut, beginning 4th week
Lower Respiratory system contains?
Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs
Respiratory Primordium begins as?
Laryngotracheal diverticulum
Laryngotracheal diverticulum lined by?
Endoderm---forms epithelium and glands of lower respiratory tract
Location of laryngotracheal diverticulum?
Between 4th and 6th pharyngeal arch
Which pharyngeal arch does not develop?
5th
4th and 6th pharyngeal arch innervated by?
Vagus nerve
Tracheoesophageal folds
Layer of splanchnic mesoderm that closes off laryngotracheal diverticulum to separate respiratory and digestive systems
Tracheoesophageal fistulas
Result of trachea and esophagus not being closed off properly; somehow connected
VACTERL
Anomalies associated with Tracheoesophageal atresia

Vertebral anomalies
Anal atresia
Cardiovascular anomalies
Tracheoesophageal fistula
Esophageal atresia
Renal and/or radial anomalies
Limb anomalies
Development of bronchi and lungs
Successive branching off of diverticulum
Visceral pleura
Derived from splanchnic mesoderm
Parietal pleura
Derived from somatic mesoderm
Primary bronchus
Formed Week 5; Right subdivides into 3 secondary bronchi and left subdivides into 2 secondary bronchi
Before birth, lungs full of?
Fluid
Fetuses born at less than 20 weeks gestation
Rarely survive because respiratory system not sufficiently mature
Fetuses born between 25-28 weeks gestation
Can survive with intensive care; earliest period at which fetuses can survive
Lungs mature at birth?
No. Over 95% of alveoli formed after birth.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Deficiency or absence of surfactant
Surfactant
Allows alveoli to expand with less inflation pressure
Thyroxine and cortisol
Help to increase production of surfactant
Hyaline membrane disease
Collapsed alveoli that resemble a glass membrane
Right atrium develops from?
Right horn of sinus venous, called sinus venarum; primitive atrium forms auricle
Primitive atrium forms?
Right and left auricle
Left atrium develops from?
Incorporation of primitive pulmonary vein and its branches; primitive atrium forms auricle
Truncal and bulbar ridges are populated with?
Neural crest cells
Aorticopulmonary septum development
Swellings in wall of truncus arteriosus (truncal ridges) and bulbis cords (bulbar ridges); formed as spiral
Aorta path in aorticopulmonary septum
Behind septum and then spiral to front
Pulmonary trunk path in aorticopulmonary septum
In front of septum then spiral to back
Persistant Truncus Arteriosus
Abnormal neural crest cell migration; only partial development of AP septum; only a large vessel leaves heart, receiving blood from both ventricles
Sign of persistent truncus arteriosus
Cyanosis
Transposition of Great Arteries
Most common cause of cyanotic heart disease in newborns; AP septum grows in straight line instead of spiral; Aorta and pulmonary trunk associated with wrong ventricle
Tetralogy of Fallot
Abnormal neural crest cell migration; truncus arterioles not divided equally; results in pulmonary stenosis and overriding aorta and ultimately VSD (ventricular septal defect); marked cyanosis
4 classic malformations of Tetralogy of Fallot
1. Pulmonary stenosis
2. Right ventricular hypertrophy
3. Overriding aorta
4. Ventricular septal defect
Ventricular septal defects (VSD)
Most common type of cardiac defect; Abnormal opening in wall between two ventricles
3 forms of VSD
Membranous VSD
Muscular VSD
Common ventricle
Membranous VSD
Most common; Failure of membranous part of interventricular septum to develop results in patent interventricular foramen; Lack of fusion of bulbar ridges and endocardial cushions
Muscular VSD
Excessive cavitation in muscular septum
Common ventricle
Interventricular septum fails to form completely resulting in 3 chambered heart
Endocardial Cushion defect
Cushions fail to fuse to make cross, resulting in persistent atrioventricular canal